India is the largest democracy in the world. I am experiencing the democratic form of government more than 27 years and I find that this is not a good form of government. I agree the representative form of government but not the democracy that the Indian is following. Citizen of Indian elected their representative but did they really represent the people? Is a big question. In India, some candidate were elected without any ideas of Law and Governance, they don’t even know what is written in the constitution and how to govern the state according to the law of the land but they were elected because they have power, money, wealth, own big business firm, successful as movies actor, they have fame, people regard them and successful in some fields; the political party give their party ticket to the candidates who are famous, who can win the election for party, or who come political family but they don’t look the candidate who can run the state, who is expert in political fields, who have a chance to get people support. However, there was a mistake in the common men side, because most of them were hero worshiper, they should be more careful when choosing their representative to run the government on their behalf. The state remember their citizen only in the times of election and in the election the richest candidate and powerful person always win in Indian the election system, and at last the state become the enemies of their citizens. There is no test system or courses provided to the candidate whether the candidate can hold the highest ministerial post or not but they were just elected because they have power and they were the only candidate and the 80% of candidate come from political families back ground in India. Politician sons, daughters, and grand children can involved in politics any times they, like; Indira Gandhi, Mr.Kiren Rijiju and Mr. Rahul Gandhi, did. The nominal representative run the government and in return their policies harmful to some communities and denied all their right for the interest of the larger group which is one of the worst part of the democracy. The present form of government assume that majority is always right but according to me which is totally the opposite because every one has equal right in the state. Some month back in my home town, state forces killed two protester by live bullets and 56 seriously injure and more than 100 have minor injuries. The protest started when the ruling government trying to create a problem by imposing 144 CrPC to get people attention; the politician do anything to get power and in order to get power they need people attention, in order to get people attention, they create unnecessary a problem and act like a movies heroes. In present form of government the concept is that, majority is always right because in majority there is power but I rather find the truth instead of following to the injustices ideologies because according to me ‘power and right’ are two face of the coin. The person can earn power by doing right thing according their interest and capabilities but over rides the constitution at dark Corner to get power is not the Right. When we recall the incident of last September 2014 in Ukhrul, how the state take a u-turn politic and third turn in handling the situation to earn power. we elected them to rule in our interest and based on law of the land but in return they came with a gun unlawfully like a machine out of control, at that time we can’t re-act to state forces directly but we fight them back with constitutional mean. However the constitution empower them to kills us anytime, she said do whatever you think is right, we will covers you up; so the forces kills two innocent civilians and wounded many, as a cover up teams the state compensated 5 lacks to the bereaves, which is a highly questionable, because it has been happening since 1952.
Center Government and Manipur Government Policies is harmful for Naga peoples and North-East as a whole, Killing to the Civilians and paying for compensations is the policy for foolish form of government i ever known, and it is continue one-after another ruling party in India. why GoM imposed Sec 144 CrPC under Arm Force Special Power Act (AFSPA) where the army have powers to take any citizen lives they likes without trails, there is no Human Right under AFSPA, dragon law but actually in the constitution it is given that if they captures any suspected person they should hand-over to the nearest police station, imposing such an unnecessary law in our Home Town? The state claim that 144CrPC is imposed because one citizen is killed by identified person, who kills Ngaranzar? The Tangkhul community or nscn or Manipur Govt? No one know, why the CPI and other intelligent agencies did not investigate? But the government just imposed 144 CrPC in Ukhrul Town? When don’t they imposed in the places where he got killed, why not in Imphal? Why not in other places but in Ukhrul Town Alone? why the govt giving trouble to the civil for no reason? There are many question we can ask when we think critically; He was kills directly or Indirectly by the GoM or his personnel enemies in my opinion. And this is the policies play by the center govt using to GoM. According to my understanding, Sec 144 CrPC is firstly use in England in 18-19 century but they abolish by the Public Order Act 1986.The section was used for the first time in India 1861 by the British Raj;
Firstly, According to sections 141-149 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), It is use only when there is emergency like; riot, communal riot, they(protesters) can be sent to ‘the jail for 3 years or fine’ in Indian constitutional context.
Secondly, Right to protest or rally is given in the Indian constitution, when govt act against the will of the community.
Thirdly, when there is protest, the securities forces can use tear gas, even the rubber bullet is not permitted until they were asked to do so, and securities forces were given authority to use live bullet, but only in one condition they can fires to the protesters; only when the protesters is out of control, at that time they can fire in the air(blind fire) as a warning to the protester and if the situation is out of control then they can shot in the foot or below thigh, and when the some protester down then the forces should take them to the nearest hospital at the earliest. However the Indian soldier never follow the constitution of India.
I read thoroughly the constitution of Indian and i find that it is not mention to kills the protesters in the Indian constitution and i realized the danger of democratic form of government because, they were elected by the people where these representative misused the law of the land and the governing officer can not read the constitution of the nation, even they know what is written out there but they easily won the election by manipulating to the common people by using vote bank politic, money powers and other means. They know have complete knowledge of Human Right and Indian Constitution to run the nation state.
Fourthly, why did the Government of Manipur and her forces violate the constitution of India? Why Manipur Govt become the enemies for the common citizens? and where is Indian Government in that time? No! the ruling party in center cant hide behind the screen. Citizen elected their representative to rule the government in their will; however, in present Indian democracy, when the politician come into power then ultimately, they started filling their empty tank by any mean and driven them by power, without any limit of hunger for power. So, some Indian politician called ‘power is poison’ because no matter how they violate the law of the land, in order to gain power. And the politician were busy for next election but they have ignores the right of the people and the value of precious life.
We don’t want this form of government for many reasons and this is not the form of government for Naga nation-state. There is no concerned of nagas in making of the constitution of India and it can cannot be applied for the Nagas nation-state.
And lastly but not the least, Indian form of democracy is not the best form of government for Naga people. Because, Government of India present in Naga inhabited areas for more than 6 (six) decade, Indian forces, Indian army, polices and IRBs(GoM) were proved 100% wrong by carrying of inhuman action to the Naga people, like; killings, rapes, beaten, force labors, tortured, violate many human right, and responsible for lost of thousand of innocent Nagas and killing without trail; based on International law, Indian constitution and Naga Customary Law, they are wrong but Indian democracy can’t bring justice for Nagas but it encourage this action by implement a policy like AFSPA and Ats 144 CrPC in Naga inhabited areas and in North-East part of India; but why there is no justice, the guilty should be penalized according the law of the land. There were many Nagas and Northeast citizen killed, rape, beaten and discriminated by Indian in all major cities of India but there is no fair justice for them; then shall we say that, this a good form of government? Here is your further clarification, Naga are not Indian in Naga History and Nagas will never be a part of India. And her democratic form of government is not a good form of government for Nagas. Those naga living in various part of India are not in war-zone but they are students, professional workers and businessmen; please, treat them like your brother and sister or as human being and stop racism. So, Indian democracies is not the best form of government and this form of government can’t applied in Nagas inhabited areas. Naga people must decide their own future and we know our interest better than anyone. Thereby Indian can’t force to Nagas to accepted Indian democratic form of government unlawfully, if we don’t want to live with Indian than they have no right to force us for another decade; the Naga people will decide their future and their form of government based on customary law, culture, custom, history and interest of her citizen, NAGA people will choose what is the best for the people one for all. However, we will not follow any form of government blindly because Indian democracy is the medicine for Indian but it can be a poison for other.
To identify two characteristic features of caste are ‘purity and pollution’ (unclean) and ‘endogamy’ (marriage within caste). Hindu society as articulated in the Vedas is classified into four Varnas or caste: Brahmin (priest and teacher), Kshatriyas (ruler and warrior), Vaishya (trader) and Shutra (servant). There are further sub-divided hierarchically into many smaller Caste or Jatis. The Dalit, Chandalas and Adivasis caste were left outside from division of varnas and they are treated as the lower caste hierarchy, and they were considered as polluted caste and they can’t touch to the other upper caste, this custom is called untouchability system. The marriage were practicing in form of endogamy where marriage take outside their caste is prohibited.
A caste system is a division of society based on occupation and family lineage. Hindu caste system recognized four distinct classes or divisions among people based on the criteria and enforced it through it is through rigid code of conduct that was specific to each class and rooted in the dharmashastras (law books) of the later vedic period. The four main caste recognized by traditional Hindu society based primarily on hereditary occupation are mention below;
- Brahmins; they are the priest and teacher who perform the religious ritual and obliged to serve the sacrament.
- Kshatriyas; they were the ruler and warrior in the society. Manu laid down that it was the duties of the king and warrior to protect the kingdom and his people.
- Vaishyas; they are the merchant and peasant classes in the society. They were expected to tend catle, offer sacrifices, trade, and lending money and cultivate the land.
- Shutras; they were the lowest class among the four caste divided in the society. There were not allowed to study vedas or event hear the sacred chants. There duties is to serve the other three caste.
- Chandalas, Dalit and Adivasis; the lowest of the shudras and other class outside from the four varnas were treated as impure ones. They are treated as untouchables because of their gory religious practice, penchant for sacrifices, magical rites and unclean habits.
The ideas of ‘pure’ and ‘impure was deeply rooted on ancient history back in Vedic period. The upper caste staying away from the unclean people is understandable in the society that was obsessed with the concept of physical and mental purity. And it was enforced with the help of law book such as Manusmriti and the support of king and panchayat who considered themselves as upholders of dharma. The belief in tradition, superstition, religious belief, fear of punishment, all this play an important role in the caste system. The caste is heredity, duties prescribe by birth, marriage outside the caste is forbidden, and all the member can be recognized the caste by their clan’s names. However all the rigid rules were more flexible in the post-colonial period and the emerging of modernization in the society make the people more rational? There is unusual with people to stay away from the people and who thinks as an expression of the social intelligence and self-preservation instinct because of their different in caste. In the present context, the personal success, family background, financial status is do matter today in the society, as it was thousand year ago but still the people belief in the caste system. Dr.Kethar defines caste as “a social group having two characteristics: (i) membership is confined to those who are born of the members and includes all persons so born; (ii) the member are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group. So, the membership confined by birth as pure and impure according to caste hierarchy and marriage is forbidden outside the curtain caste group.
- PURITY AND POLUTION: the three element of caste system are hierarchy, repulsion and hereditary specialization which are directly related to practicing of purity and pollution called untouchable. According to pro. M.N. Srinivas, traditional Indian society was based on Varna and Jati. This system is very ancient in origin from Rigveda and through the passage of time it has undergone, profound changes. The origin of Varna is reasonable clear from the references in the Vedic Corpus stated by him and the genesis of the Jati have been the clan, prior to its becoming a caste.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, has given a pathetic condition and given a lot of fact about the untouchables. He write that “under the rule of the Peshwas in the Maratha country the untouchable was not allowed to use the public street if a Hundu was coming along lets he should pollute the Hindu by his shadow. The untouchable was required to have a black thread either on his wrist or on in his neck as assign or a mark to prevent the Hindu from getting them polluted by his touch through mistake. In Poona, the capital of the Peshwa, the untouchable was required to carry, strung from his Wrist, a broom to sweep away from behind the dust he treated on lest a Hindu walking on the same should be polluted. In Poona the untouchable was required to carry an earthen pot, hung in his neck wherever he went, for holding his spit falling on earth should pollute a Hindu who might unknowingly happen to tread on it”.
Examble-1: The children of untouchables were not allowed to study in public school. Untouchable were not allowed to use the public well, to wear apparel or ornament they like and to eat any food they like.
This list of atrocities is even longer than this. In post-independence India, this is quite lessen but not completely exhausted. He believe in new social order based on the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity in consonance with the principle of democracy. He advocate the backward classes have come realized that after all education is the greatest material benefit for which they can fight, who have just realized that without education their existence is not safe. He suffer a lot due to this caste system and still in that system of discrimination, he succeeded to well-educated himself.
- ANDOGAMY: Marriage is a social institution, every society have their own form and type of marriage. Endogamy form of marriage practice in Indian caste system. Marriage within the caste were being practice but marrying outside the caste were punished, this system is called endogamy. The caste system prohibited marriages outside one’s caste to avoid inter mixture of the caste, which was considered to be a sign of decline of dharma and the very reason why the caste system was devised. The Hindu law allowed certain type of inter-caste marriages as an exception rather than rules. Marriages between a higher caste men and lower caste women were less objectionable than marriages between shudras males and higher caste females and marriage between men of upper caste and shudra women. . Dr. Ambedkar proposed widow remarriage and against many social evil, like untouchability, child marriage, sati system and caste system. The marriage system were more relaxed after the pass of Hindu marriage act 1955 amended in the Indian constitution.
According to B.R. Ambedkar, he did not belief in caste, he said “I do not belief the caste system, even as distinguished from varnarashram, to be an Odious and vicious dogma” untouchability is the by- product of caste system. The custom of endogamy: a women or men should marry to their own caste, and she can be disposed of in two different ways so as to preserve the endogamy of the caste;
Examble-2; firstly, those members marrying outside the caste were driven out from village and if the husband died, burn her on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband and get rid of her and something must be done to her if she cannot be burned along with her deceased husband. This is however, is rather an impracticable way of solving the problem of sex disparity.
Secondly; the second remedy is to enforce widowhood on her for the rest of her life. So far as the objective results are concerned, burning is a better solution than enforcing widowhood. (Indian Antiquary Vol. XLI (May 1917)
Dr. Ambedkar advocates inter-caste marriage as one of the solution to the problem. But he stresses that the belief in the ‘shastras’ is the root cause of the maintaining caste. He therefore suggests, “make every man and women free from the thralldom of the ‘shastras’, cleanse their mind of the pernicious nations founded on the ‘shastras’ and he or she will interdine and intermarry” according to him, the society must be based on reason and not on atrocious traditions of the caste system.
Critically analysis on ‘Purity and Pollution’ and ‘Endogamy’; according to my point of view, everyone is equal before the eyes of the God and before the law of the nation-state. However, Purity and pollution and endogamy is the by-product of caste system created by the men. I respect the history of all the society and caste system but it doesn’t mean that I supported social evil which was practice in the Caste system likes, discriminating to lower caste, pure and pollution, child marriage, sati system and endogamy. The division of labor in ascribe but not to be achieved through education and individual capability and interest is not justified. When we examined historically, the Indian society has been a predominantly by Hindu, like 12% of Muslim, Christian form 3% of the population, while silk, Buddhist and other religion groups constitute another 3% of the population. However the Hindu society have rigid Endogamy and caste hierarchy. The ‘untouchable and endogamy’ based on caste system is very much present in Indian society where the society were divided in ‘pure caste’ and ‘impure caste’ but it is very much relaxed in post-independence when compared. Though the Indian caste system is regarded as closed society and the position and status of the individual in the society is decided by birth. However, within the frame work of the cate system itself, there were some kind of mobility is there for many reason likes; Modernization, Industrialization and market economy, secularization of ideas, migration to urban for professional works, a transition from ascribe to achieved status through education and market changes and increasing nationalization toward participation in politics under the constitution of India. Thereby, the concept of ‘pure and impure’ and other belief are more relax in the present generation.
In conclusion; the Indian caste system is very unique in its own way. The origin of the caste system started from Vedas period and there are four caste mention;
- Brahmin (priest and teacher),
- Kshatriyas (ruler and warrior),
- Vaishyas (merchant and peasant) and
- Vhudras (servant or serving to other three group).
However there other group left out in the four division of Varnas, like; Dalit, chandalas and Adivasis, they are treated as lower caste along with lowest shudras who were considered to be polluted caste. The other three caste considered themselves as ‘pure’ and they are upper caste in the society. Caste is a closed group, hereditary and decided by birth but not by achieves. Mr. Ambedkar did not belief in the caste system and he said it is the creation by the people. He advocated the inter-caste marriage in order to solve the problem of endogamy. He further added that, education is the best way to protect oneself from caste discrimination. Pro. M.N. Srinivas is a well know Indian sociologist, he talk about the mobility in the society. According to him, the mobility taking place in the society, where the individual members can move their positions by adopting the other higher caste, he called it Sankritilization. The society was changing toward modernization and the people were more rational, belief in nationalism, democratization in society and constitution of the country give the ideas of equal right before law.
Brief History of Assam, From development perspective:
Assam is one of the medium-sized states of the country with an area of 78,500 sq km and a population of 2.66 crore. ‘Assam’ is the anglicized form of the word ‘Asom’ which means ‘uneven’ or ‘unparalleled’. According to another interpretation, the word ‘Assam’ is derived from the word ‘Ahom’, the Tai Mongoloid race who ruled most of the Brahmaputra valley for over 600 years till the coming of the British in 1826.
Historically, Assam has been a prosperous land. But today, Assam is one of the poorest and the most problem-ridden states of the country. Natural calamities, mainly floods, insurgency, terrorism, ethnic tension, economic backwardness and poverty, massive unemployment, serious financial crisis and many such problems have tormented the state for quite some time. At the time of Independence, Assam was one of the richer states and its per capita income was 4 per cent above the national average. Today, Assam ranks among one of the poorest states of the country and its per capita income is less than 60 per cent of the national average. What is even more disturbing is that the gap between Assam and rest of the country in terms of per capita income has been widening continuously during the last fifty years and if the present trend continues, then by 2020 the per capita income of Assam will be only about 40 per cent of the national average.
The earthquake was followed by severe floods in the mid-1950s bringing untold devastations and miseries in their trail. Next came India’s war with China in 1962. Assam and the North-East faced the brunt of the war. In 1971, Assam was fragmented once again and Balkanisation of the North-East was taken one step further. Assam had to shift its capital in 1974 from Shillong to Guwahati. Before the administration could settle down in its new environment in a make-shift temporary capital, the Assam agitation began in 1979 and the administration was stressed to its limits. Maintenance of law and order got precedence over everything else. The rise of the ULFA in the mid-1980s followed by unrest in Bodo areas engulfed the state with militancy, insurgency, terrorism, and associated killings, extortions. Although the state is very rich in natural resources and industrial raw materials, the process of industrialization of the state came to a grinding halt. Not only did the flow of fresh investment stop, there began a process of capital flight from the state.
Apart from the direct cost of fighting terrorism including loss of life and property, the indirect cost in terms of loss of production, employment, investment and a general environment of insecurity and despondency, have been immense. Assam’s case of economic degeneration cannot be explained in its entirety by economic logic and theory. It must be seen in its proper historical, cultural, political and geographical perspectives.
Source: Annual plan 2013-14, government of Assam.
Strategies for Assam development:
- From a per capita income above the national average in 1951, it is now barely 60 per cent of it. Assam’s economy has to accelerate and catch up with the rest of the country. A minimum growth rate of 6 per cent per year can be realized over the next five years which will reduce rural poverty from 40 per cent to 28 per cent in five years.
- After five years of 6 per cent growth rate Assam’s economy has to grow by 2 percentage points faster than the Indian economy. The state is focussing more on the industries and infrastructure in order to become a market for north-eastern states.
- Overcome transport and access to the north-eastern states. Assam’s transport infrastructure has improved but it is still inadequate. More needs to be done.
- Maintenance of the existing road need to be maintained. Connections and road access for the even the remote villages
- Congestion on the Siliguri-Guwahati sections of the railway should be relieved either by double tracking or providing adequate bypass siding.
- Army and the railways testing and certification facilities should be set up in Guwahati,
- Bridges across Brahmaputra are extremely important for connectivity and there are only three bridges today.
- Air connectivity is vital for a modern economy. To develop tourism, it is a must. Fuel price and tax concession are offered to encourage internal air services within the North-East should be continued.
- Convenient same day return flights to Kolkata are needed.
- The inland water transport network was disturbed by partition and further disrupted by the earthquake of 1950. Its revival needs a coordinated effort to provide infrastructure support and night facilities.
- Per capita electricity consumption in Assam is only one-fourth of the All India consumption reflecting the poor quality of life and low level of economic activity. If all the projects that were under implementation in March 1996 were to be completed, the NE would have a total installed generating capacity of 3396 MW, enough to meet its demand for some years. The work on these projects proceeded at a slow pace due to lack of funds. The gap between the average cost of supply and the average tariff is a phenomenal figure of Rs 4.50 per unit. Power sector reforms have become critical to improve the financial position of ASEB and should be steadfastly pursued.
- Apart from pressing for more funds for large hydel projects conceived years ago a fresh look at them should be taken for alternative designs taking into account their social and environmental consequences.
- A world-class telecomm service at low international prices offers an opportunity to Assam to develop and to overcome its traditional access disadvantage. Government policy must facilitate development of telecommunications in the North-East which has difficult terrain and many remote villages.
- Availability of credit is critical for development of small enterprises that in turn, is crucial for Assam’s development. The credit disbursed by banks and financial institutions needs to be stepped up.
- Unless extortion by various insurgent groups, which seems to have been the fastest growing activity, is brought under control, industrial growth is unlikely to accelerate despite many tax concessions and very attractive incentives given to industries to compensate them for the transport disadvantage as long as what the government gives other “tax collectors” collect.
- We need to understand better how militancy and insurgency can be contained. A separate study on militancy should be carried out.
- Trade with neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar and China can be made freer. The Ministry of External Affairs can do a lot for the North-East.
- Government has an important role to play in the development of Assam. It needs to provide social services, infrastructure and good governance. It will have to put its fiscal house in order. It is so starved of funds today that it cannot even find the 10 per cent needed to benefit from central projects. Downsizing government is a most pressing imperative if Assam is to develop faster. Fiscal strategies towards economic development are examined in a subsequent chapter where specific recommendations are given.
- It is critical to develop institutional mechanism particularly to provide accountability and to shake up non-performing governance systems.
- Decentralization and devolution of financial resources to local Panchayats should be done as soon as possible.
- A right to information should be given to the people through an Act, so that local bodies function in a transparent manner.
- The stage is set for Assam to take off. The implementation of the package announced by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee will give a big thrust to the region’s economy.
- A strategy of development led by many small entrepreneurs and initiatives all over the state is more likely to succeed, where young people and women clearly perceive that something is happening all around them and that the future holds out a lot of promise. Such decentralized development is less likely to be a victim of extortions.
- Assam’s development has to be based on its natural resources and on a participatory basis. The following sectors offer much scope for development
- Horticulture and Agro Processing
- Silviculture and Handicrafts
- Forestry and related industries
- Petrochemicals and related industries
- IT-based services
- Agricultural growth can be stepped up with a continued emphasis on shallow tube wells, formation of village development councils, development of rural roads and establishments of organized markets.
- It should be possible to increase fish production by 40000 tonnes a year in the next five years indicating a growth rate of 6 per cent per year.
- Assam and North-East have a vast potential for tourism and should be made a tourist hot-spot like Kerala has become.
- Revival of forestry and wood industries requires development of plans for sustainable use of forests. Innovative actions may be needed to implement them.
- Assam’s handicrafts need to be marketed to obtain high prices for them. This requires a modern design and marketing set up that targets high-income consumers in the world. A system to encourage private designers and entrepreneurs needs to be evolved.
- Assam’s unique Muga silk has not seen any technological development as hardly any research effort has gone into it. A silviculture research institute should be set up in Assam.
- Development is incomplete without social development. A chapter deals with poverty and social development and suggests specific measures.
- We should also note that development of Assam is intricately linked with the development of the whole North-East. With sound policies and good governance Assam should and can develop much faster than it has been doing.
Some of the above strategies have been achieved partially and still the Assam government have putting its rigorous effort to achieve the goal of development but unfortunately various obstacles have been stopping the state to do so. Some of the serious concern that hampers in development activities are discussed below:
- Immigration: Migration of the outsider into Assam has a long history. The British administration had encouraged migration of thousands of Adivasi from eastern India like Jharkhand, Orissa, and west Bengal mainly to work on the tea plantations and other construction works. Now recent news of Assam about illegal immigration problems from the neighboring country Bangladesh has created several turmoil in some districts of lower Assam. Such clashes even turn into barbarian bloodsheds leaving millions of people homeless. As a result, incumbent government has to suffer from socio-economic and political aspects.
- Unemployment: In Assam, unemployment is a big problem that put the future sizeable group of educated as well as uneducated youth of country in the dark. Service sector is poor in Assam. There has been very limited number of jobs and has failed to meet up the demand in the job market. The level of unemployment due to a lack of developmental activity over an extended period is reflected in the number of persons, which today has reached the 2.2 million mark. More than 70% of these are educated. It has been the one of the biggest problems facing in Assam and that imparting modern skill to youths can eradicate it to large extent, today. Almost 90% of the government revenue are invested in service sector in Assam.
- Insurgency: Assam has their strong insurgency groups including regional based on particular districts and tribes, actively deals with various corruption act including smuggling activities gun and drugs supply to other states of the country. Illegally trading logs from forests resources in the state. No doubt, sometime, they play the role of stumping block for development in the state, by demanding various sector development but mostly through violence and rarely though peaceful means. They collect illegal taxes to the major cooperate and private companies time to times.
- Example; 1. The governor’s report dated November 26, 1990, estimated the amount of extortion till by United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) at approximately Rs 4 to 5 billion.
- Example: 2. One Tea Company was found to haves paid 13.5 million to the Bodo Security Force.
- Example: 3. the insurgent outfit demand and extract smaller amount from various small businessmen and also corrupt government personal.
- Corruption: Corruption is one of the major issues in the state like all other states of India. The lack of integrity and honesty, especially susceptibility to bribery use as a position of trust for dishonest gain among the government servants, lead to blocking the way to development in the state. In all of nine years (2000-2009), only 95 cases of corruption were registered in Assam, with a conviction rate of 54 percent and zero recovery. After 2009 till 2013 the corruption rate is very high, 31 pending corruption investigations and 17 cases were added but there is no positive action against the corruption so far from the state side. However many young people coming up with new thought and positive step to fight against corruption.
Assam economic trends constitute the following major sectors given below:
Natural resources, agriculture, tourism, infrastructure and industries. All these together act as the backbone the state. Here I would like explore some depth in to the agriculture and industry sector that draws the major attention of the state.
Source: Annual plan 2011-12, government of Assam.
Comparatively Assam’s agriculture is strong and is exported to other states of the country. Needless to say about Tea of Assam which is famous worldwide, contribute around 13% production alone to the global market. Assam is famous for producing tea leave in India and the world. It is the most important cash crop in Assam, the total areas cultivation tea was estimated at over 229,000 hectares in 1989, employing an average of over half-a-million people per day. The ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ sector is likely to show a growth of 5.4 per cent in its GDP during 2010-11, as against the previous year’s growth rate of 0.4 per cent. According to the information furnished by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), which has been used in compiling the estimate of GDP from agriculture in 2010-11, production of food grains and oilseeds is expected to grow by 6.5 per cent and 11.9 per cent respectively, as compared to the previous agriculture year. The production of cotton and sugarcane is also expected to rise by 41.2 per cent and 15.2 per cent respectively in 2010-11. Among the horticultural crops, production of fruits and vegetables is expected to increase by 4.1 per cent and 3.8 per cent respectively during the year 2010-11.
Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Assam contributing 35% to the State Domestic Product in 1996-97 at constant (1980-81) price. The Government has, therefore, assigned very high priority to agriculture. This was reflected through a quantum jump in rice production to 39 lakh MT in 1999-2000 from the level of 31.55 lakh MT and 33.83 lakh MT in 1998-99 and 1997-98, respectively. This was achieved through creation of assured Shallow Tube Well irrigation with assistance of World Bank (ARIASP) and NABARD (SKY) scheme. Although regular flood, drought, heavy population pressure on land and infrastructural weakness are impediments to growth, yet the farmers have started to increase production through technological innovations and appropriate Government policies. During the next quarter century, the Tempo of raising productivity and production must be accelerated along with integration of our economy with outside economies necessitated in the aftermath of liberalization.
In the premises of the above background a VISION PLAN through 2025 A.D. has been proposed keeping food security, employment generation and sustainability of agricultural production in its core. Thus a vision statement for Assam’s Agriculture is crafted in the following words “SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE FOR ENOUGH FOOD, EMPLOYMENT AND WEALTH”, in order to achieve the above vision, areas of intervention that are to be addressed are discussed below:
Source: Annual plan 2013-14, government of Assam.
Source: Annual Plan 2011-12, government of Assam
Agricultural development in the state confronts a number of constraints, which are illustrated below.
Low availability of farm power: The current power availability to the farmers in the state is barely 0.3 H.P. per ha as against 1 H.P in the neighbor-hood. Low availability of farm power has become one of the constraints to double or multiple cropping. This has been acutely felt after expansion of area under irrigation through large-scale installation of shallow tube-wells.
Inadequate availability of seeds and planting materials: The NE states are not self-sufficient in production of required seeds except for paddy, mustard. Hence, the region is almost dependent on outside supply to meet its requirement of seeds. The infrastructural inadequacy and humid sub-tropical climate of the state make the process of seed production a complex procedure. Horticulture development has suffered from inadequacy of quality planting materials. This is due to lack of trained personnel and standard mother plants.
Poor post-harvest technology and facility: After the expansion of micro-irrigation through installation of shallow tube wells, the area under summer rice has increased considerably. The state government has launched an ambitious program to increase the area of summer paddy up to 10.0 lakh ha. The harvesting period of summer rice coincides with high rainfall making the process of drying and threshing difficult. The post-harvest handling of summer rice viz. threshing, drying and milling will continue to remain a problem till some innovative measures are introduced. The processing of pulses and non-traditional oilseeds like sunflower and groundnut is also a problem in the state. In horticulture sector, there is huge post-harvest loss due to lack of technology, product information and inadequate processing infrastructure.
Poor marketing infrastructure: Marketing has been a major problem. The price spread between the producer and consumer is too wide due to absence of organized market. The storage facility including the proper storage technology a problematic area. The cold chain system is virtually non-existent in the state. Absence of agro-processing industry make the farmers vulnerable to market volatility. Collection and dissemination of market information system is hardly adequate. Transportation of commodities from rural area is far from satisfactory due to poor rural connectivity.
Chronic flood: Approximately 3 lakh ha of crop area is subject to annual flood. High rainfall also makes the management of the crop difficult. These factors act as deterrent to the investment on farming.
AREAS OF INTERVENTION:
Sustainable agriculture is the key to keep up the level of production in the future. Issues related to this are discussed. Unemployment is another important area that is to be addressed in the agriculture sector. The industrial base of the State being narrow, agriculture sector must absorb the ever-growing labor force in the State. Self-sufficiency of food grains, oilseeds and horticultural products is the greatest necessity of the hour. However, excessive population increase has worsened the food situation. Although it is not discussed specifically in this report, serious efforts are necessary to mitigate the demographic problem. Introduction of large-scale shallow tube well irrigation in the State and future plans have reinforced the confidence of the State to wipe out deficit of rice from the next financial year. In this respect the strategy is to give stress on summer rice production with the irrigation potentiality created under shallow tube well programs. Introduction of hybrid seeds under summer rice will augment and stabilize rice production. Emphasis on cultivation of scented rice and other varieties suitable for snacks during Sali season holds great promise for exports. A target of production of 10 million tons of rice has been fixed in 2007-08 to synchronize with the celebration of 60 years of India’s independence. But the weakness of the State in this respect is the absence of a modern seed industry which is to be seriously thought of. Nutrient supply for targeted higher production of crops taking a judicious approach of Integrated Nutrient Management will be a challenging area of research in future. Use of green manure crops, bio-fertilizer and other organic manure to stabilize the agro-system shall be the focus of attention. The position of pulses production is far from satisfactory due to inherent lack of soil potentiality and absence of breakthrough in pulse research even in national level.
However, strategies have been given to decrease deficit in pulse requirement. In respect of oil seeds, although the State is deficit, there is scope to mop up the deficit and become surplus. Necessary approaches in this regard are also given. In case of horticulture, the State’s position is good. The main thrust here will be value addition inviting participation of the private sector. Floriculture is an entirely new field. The potentiality of floriculture can be tapped to augment export earnings and mitigate unemployment for which modern infrastructures are to be built. In order to achieve self-sufficiency, agricultural mechanization is the crying need of the hour. Issues related to mechanization are also discussed. Requirement of inputs and other resources are also presented in this report. Other related issues in respect of infrastructure, training, WTO regime and role of Information Technology in Assam’s vision in the next quarter century are also presented.
However, increasing population pressure on land will result in shrinkage of cultivated area. By 2025 AD estimated additional population will be about 178 lakh. This population will require about 2 lakh hectares for habitation alone. There will be huge requirement of food for this additional population. In order to meet this requirement, vertical increase of production will remain a pressing necessity during next 25 years.
The growth in GDP for mining and quarrying and manufacturing sectors during 2010-11 is expected to be 6.2 and 8.8 percent respectively over previous year. According to the latest estimates available on the index of Industrial Production (IIP), the Index of mining and manufacturing registered growth rates of 8.0 per cent and 10.0 per cent during April-November, 2010. The estimated growth rate for construction sector is 8.0 per cent in 2010-11. The key indicators of construction sector, namely, cement production and steel consumption have registered growth rates of 4.4 per cent and 8.8 per cent respectively during April December, 2010.
New industry policy for Assam from: New policy would be in place for a period of five years and promote MSMEs. Supratim Dev Guwahati, February 22, 2014 Last updated at 22:28 IST. The Assam government on Saturday announced ‘The Industrial and Investment Policy of Assam, 2014’, a new industrial policy that would come into effect in the state from March 1. The move is seen as an effort to fine-tune the Congress-ruled state government’s policy to promote industry. The new policy would be in place for a period of five years and has identified promotion of micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME) sector as its “priority area”. The new policy has laid down “various incentives” for units set up by private sector, joint sector, co-operative, partnership, self-help groups, trust, NGOs, as well as units set up by state government.
Also incentives have been provided to service sector activities such as employment-oriented skill building and vocational training institute, hotels and resorts above two-star category and diagnostic facility.
The new policy also provides value-added tax (VAT) exemption for 15 years to industries set up on or after March 1, 2014. For the first and the second year, there would be 100 per cent VAT exemption, followed by 80 per cent in the third and fourth year and 50 per cent till 15th year. Additional VAT exemption proposed for units set up in designated industrial parks such as Food Park, Bamboo Park, Plastic Park, Tea Park, etc. Entry tax has also been exempted for all eligible units including state public sector units (PSUs) on procurement of plant and machinery from other states. The new industrial policy has also exempted luxury tax by 50 per cent in hotel industry.
However, figures from recent years show the government-sponsored incentives, by both Centre and the state, have failed miserably to attract sizeable amount of private sector investment in the state. State industry minister Pradyut Bordoloi, while announcing the new industrial policy on Saturday, admitted the previous state-sponsored industrial policy could not attract much investment from the private sector. In the last five years, he added, the state could attract about Rs 12,000 crore, out of which around Rs 9,800 crore was by the central government in the Assam Gas Cracker project. Though the private sector, especially the big-ticket investors, had often sited availability of land, power and a conducive environment as prerequisites for investments, rather than incentives, Bordoloi sounded ambiguous and unconvincing while replying to questions of media persons on how the state government planned to meet the demand for land and power for industry. “We are looking at how we can create new industrial hubs through public-private-partnership (PPP) model,” replied the minister to a query on unavailability of land even within the premises of current industrial estates, given that the thrust area of the new policy would be on MSME sector. “We have realized we can’t attract big-ticket investors because of unavailability of land. So the utmost priority would be on the MSME sector. Efforts are on to create a conducive environment for the MSME sector,” said Bordoloi. He added: “The broad objective of the policy is to encourage sustainable investment in the MSME sector on local resources, create employment especially in rural areas and build a vast pool of skilled personnel.”
Apart from the above sectors, the Assam’s development is also measured by other development indicators like GDP per capita, literacy, life expectancy at birth, years of schooling, gender-ratio etc. some of these are given below:
Position of the State in the National Human Development Report:
The National Human Development Report 2001 places Assam at the 14th place in terms of the Human Development Index value, among the 15 States compared and at the 26th place among the 32 States compared in terms of the Human Development Index. In the 27th place among the 32 States compared in terms of Human Poverty Index 29th out of the 32 States compared in terms of Gender Disparity Index Rank.
GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product): Assam
Source: NEDFi Databank.
Between 1980 and 1990, per capita income at 1980-81 prices grew by 20 per cent in Assam compared with 40 per cent for all India. Between 1980 and 1998 per capita income in Assam grew by 10 per cent compared with 39 per cent for all India. While the Indian economy grew at 6 per cent over 1981 to 2000, Assam State GDP grew only at 3.3 per cent. While the growth rate of the Indian economy accelerated in the 1990s over 1980s, Assam’s economy decelerated in the 1990s.
Per Capita Income:
The per capita NSDP of Assam at constant (2004-05) prices and current prices during the year 2009-10 calculated at `20279.00 and `27197.00 respectively against `19063.00 and `24195.00 respectively in the previous year. The percentage increase in per capita income during 2009-10 was 6.4 at constant (2004-05) prices and 12.41 per cent over the previous year.
Source: Annual plan 2013-14, government of Assam.
Maternal Mortality Rate Assam has a high maternal mortality rate and there has been an increase in the rate over time. It increased from 401 per thousand to 409 per thousand from 1997 to 1998. However, the all India average maternal mortality rate is also very high, 407 per thousand in 1998, although there was a decline from the 1997 rate of 408.
Child sex ratio:
Source: Planning and development department, government of Assam.
Assam’s sex ratio i.e. females per 1,000 males stands at 954, with almost all districts showing significant improvement over the last decade. While the State ranks higher than the all India average of 940 per 1,000 males, we have a long way to go if we are to achieve gender parity of States such as Chhattisgarh (992) or Tamil Nadu (995). What is of concern, however, is that the child sex ratio, i.e. the number of female children per 1,000 male children in the 0-6 year age group shows a significant decline from 975 in 1991 to 957 in 2011, with 10 of the 27 district recording a lower child sex ratio than the State average. This is an indication that a lesser number of girl children are being allowed to survive, develop and grow into healthy and productive citizens of our State.
Life expectancy at birth:
The expectation of life at birth in Assam during the period 1989-93 at 54.9 is lower than the all India rate of 59.4. A woman in Assam has higher life expectancy than her male counterpart within the State in both rural and urban areas, but in both cases she has lower life expectancy than her average Indian counterpart. The male female gap in life expectancy in rural Assam is 0.7 years and in Urban Assam, the difference is even higher, 1.1 years. The expectation of life at birth in Assam increased from 53.9 in 1987-91 to 55.7 in 1991-95 and 56 in 1992-96 but lagged behind the all India figures of 58.2 60.3 and 61 respectively. The rural expectancy of life at birth in Assam during the period 1992-96 was 56 against the corresponding all India life expectancy of 61 years. The urban expectancy of life at birth in Assam and India during same period were respectively 65 and 66. The female expectancy of life at birth in Assam during the period 1987- 91 at 54.5, though increased to 56.1 in the period 1991-95, remained below the all India female life expectancy rates of 58.6 and 60.9 respectively.
Source: Planning and development department, government of Assam.
Assam’s literacy rate for population above 7 years is 73.18% 10 (an increase of nearly 10% as compared to 2001); this, however, is lower than the national average of 74.04%. While male literacy rate at 78.81% is higher than the female literacy rate at 67.27%, a positive sign is that female literacy has increased at a faster pace as compared to male literacy. At 104.4% 11 Assam’s gross enrolment ratio (GER) at the primary level is at par with the national average; however, enrolment at the upper primary level is 96.8 %, which is proposed to be improved.
Year of schooling:
A large number of eligible children of school going age still remain out of school. The recent NFHS survey indicates that 72 per cent of the population in the 6-17 age group is attending school in Assam, which is same as the all India average. Median number of years of schooling completed among the male population age 6 and above is 4.4 compared to 8.1 for Kerala and 5.5 for all India. Female educational achievement in Assam is found to be better relative to the all India performance. The various gaps: rural-urban gap, gender gap (male/female) and poverty gap (poor/non-poor) is very much evident from the data on educational attainment. The problem of school dropouts in Assam relative to other Indian States has also been brought out sharply in the Economic Survey 2000-01. During 1998-99, the gross enrolment ratio for primary school (class I-V) children was 109.63 in Assam compared to 92.14 per cent in all India. But for the upper primary level (classes VI to VIII), the enrolment ratio was merely 61.12 compared to 57.58 per cent for all India. Although the primary level enrolment during 1998-99 in Assam is higher than most other States, the gross enrolment ratio is considerably lower at the upper primary level indicating a high percentage of dropouts. One important reason for high dropout rate is the non-availability of educational facilities above the primary level in villages. A large percentage of the villages are still without an upper primary school. This especially accounts for a large chunk of girls dropping out after primary level. The parents are reluctant to send the girls to other villages for schooling, for fear of their security.
About Karbi Anglong: largest district of Assam:
It is an autonomous district under the Sixth Schedule of Indian Constitution. The people of the district earn their livelihood chiefly by agriculture. The district is abundant with natural resource but unfortunately it was quite backward in the field of education. The investigator intended to study the development and expansion of primary education in the district. The explored information says that prior to Independence education was totally at zero level in Karbi Anglong. After Independence, some initiatives have been taken by both the state government and the District Council for providing education to the local tribal people. At present, a number of primaries, M.E., high and higher secondary schools were established in the district. Provision of higher education is also here. According to 2011 census, the literacy rate of Karbi Anglong is 73.52, which is low in comparison to other districts of Assam. Presently, Sarva Shiksha Abhijan (SSA) has been trying to cover all children of 6-14 years in the field of education which has been a great initiative for the development of elementary education. Because of its special package, district has witnessed overall some good development including sectors like road and transport, agriculture based on rubber, coffee, rice, maize etc. Public health also increased due to the notional rural health mission. With the implementation of the various flagship programs like MGNREGAs, Indira Awaas Yojona, district infrastructure has improved lot. Power sector also improved over the past 10 years, now almost every rural villages have electricity connection in their house, at least a single bulb. But some of the social-political problems have increased more. Ethnic clash is often seen perpetuated by a handful groups for their political interest. It also a hub of several regional militants that hinder in the development path.
About the Uklrul: District of Manipur:
Ukhrul is the home of the Tangkhul Naga tribe, According to the 2011 census Ukhrul district has a population of 183,115,The district headquarters, Ukhrul, is linked with Imphal, the state capital by national highway 1Development of the Ukhrul are taking places in many areas like education, health and agriculture. Most of the youngster from my district were getting education at least upto class X to XII much more better comparing to last 5 (five) year. The district headquarter hospital is promoted into better infrastructure and having more facilities recently. The agriculture were very much improve with the help of Foreign Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), the farmer increase their production by using machine in the farming given by the IFAD to the farmer of Ukhrul district.
‘Look East‘; one of the most interesting in the present Indian foreign policy regarding trading with Eastern neighboring nation is we called it ‘Look East policy’ thrust of Indian foreign policy has also grown as Europe and the US east-to-west. Government of India trying to operate a new policies to open a trade with eastern part of country and Ukhrul town will become a gateway to Burma once it is .
Ukhrul my home town: ukhrul is land of Shirui lily. Many development taking place in Ukhrul District Manipur state; like:
|The mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005
Ministry of Rural Development Government of India 2012 data.
- Assam Planning Commission, 2012.
- Annual plan 2011-12, 2012-13, 2013-14.
- Economic survey of Assam 2011-12, 2012-13.
- UNDP (Assam Economics and Human Development Indicators.
- Assam state human development Report, 2013-14.
- Government of Assam, Vision Assam 2025.
- Chief Minister’s vision for women and children 2016, government of Assam.
- Gait, Edward A (1906), “A History of Assam, Calcutta”.
- Imperial Gazetteer, Vol 6, 1908).
- The Assam Tourism Development Corporation Ltd (2012).
- India-Asia-IFAD, May 16 2012.
- Karbi Anglong.gov.in
- Rural Development Program- Ukhrul District Manipur.2011-12.
- Das, H.N.,”Insurgency and development the Assam experience”.
Ramachandra Guha was born on 29 April 1958 in Dehra Dun) he is an Indian historian and writer, whose research interests include; environment, social and cricket history. He is also a columnist for The Telegraph and Hindustan Times. His large body of work is highly appreciated by many people and which made him a significant figure in the Indian history studies, and Guha is valued as one of the major historian of the late twentieth and early twenty first centuries.
The Unquiet Woods is written by Ramachandra Guha, the book is about the path-breaking study of peasant movements against commercial forest. Which offer a new epilogue that brings the story of Himalayan social protest up to date. The reflecting of the Chipko Movement continues influence in the wider world and in larger scales. A new appendix charts the progress of environmental history in the Indian Himalayan foothill.
This book focuses on lower-class protest in the Indian Himalayas. It has three major aims; its primary focus is on the links between structures of domination and the idioms of social protest. The northern part of Indian especially in Uttarakhand is present as a case study between 1815 t0 1949, it was divided into distinct sociopolitical system. Firstly, the princely state of Tehri Garhwal and the colonial territory of Kumaun; the author examines how these distinct sociopolitical system and the histories of protest in Uttarakhand influence the trajectory of the contemporary social movement, like the Chipko Andolan. Secondly, the major focus is on the linked between competing system of forest used and management ecological decline and agrarians come out with protest. There-by, the focus on the villagers of areas who are affected by forest policies. Finally, while the book core consists of a comparative analysis protest in Tahri Garhwal and Kumaun divisions. It also attempts three additional kinds of comparison. Firstly, its uses the Tehri Garhwal case to develop a theory of customary rebellions in traditional monarchies. Secondly, it uses the Kumaun case to make a larger critique of party centered history nationalism. And arguing that the connections between the peasantry and organized politics are more complex and more surprising than as yet been supposed. Thirdly, it focusses on lower class protest mainly by women and villagers; it compares movements in 20th century Uttarakhand with movements in defended of the Forest Right in the early capitalist Europe. It suggests that the persistence of forest conflicts in the former case and their act of decreasing or reducing forest right were eventually disappearance in the latter is indicative of the ecological limits to fully blown industrialization on the western model in ex-colonial countries. Lastly, the book has 8 (eight) chapters and a subject index, starting from Chapter (one) to Chapter 8 (eight) can be discuss further.
The unquiet Woods: (CHAPTER 1) the book begin with a description of the political history and social structure of Uttarakhan during the initial year of colonial rules and ecological change and peasant resistance in the Himalayas. It is an environmental history dealing with peasant societies in India. The areas of the Himalayas range and those areas of the population which include a vast majority of the people life were immediately effected by the environment, were least studied. Ramachandra Guha notes in the preface to the study that “the relationship between colonialism and ecological decline is neglected by historians of modern India. However they have been rather more aware of the social and political consequences of British rules.
CHAPTER 2 & 3) the linkage of incorporate between forest and agriculture, the management of the forest in the indigenous system. Ramachandra Guha, in his book (the unquiet woods) is largely historical of tracing and responses to interferences in the forest management under British and the independence republic government. Guha is especially interesting on different and continues between the pre and post- independence period. In the earlier, the areas of the forest was left unread traditional rules while the rest were incorporated into the British Raj. He attempt to change this trend by tracing the social and ecological roots of the best known environmental movement like the “Chipko Andolan” in northern part of India.
(CHAPTER 4 & 5) Talk about a regular intervals, the contravention of forest laws represented the most tangible evidence of such protest. The trajectory of social protest is described in more fully detail way. The forest law led to the evolution of management strategies of considerable sophisticated which could ensure to sustain out-put of commercially valued timber species. They decided to protest by embracing the trees even if axes split open their stomachs. There-by the chipko movement is an invention of Chandi Prasad Bhatt was born. The movement successded in preventing the sport company from felling a single tree in the Mandal and quickly spread to other region in Uttarakhand. The Reni forest episode in 1974, for examble, in the women of the community alone halted the felling operation of the state wa a landmark even in the history resouces of the chipko movement. According to Guha, the Uttarakhand movement stem from the chipko movement itself; both movement identified the problem as the administration’s facilitication of resources exploitation by external agencies and suggested a solution of local control over natural and political resources.
(CHAPTER 6) The march of commercial forest; the author persuasively argues, the Chipko Movement did not emerge from a vacuum. The author talk about historical Forest Act like, The 1878 Forest Act through which it took over the forests. The Act indroduced scientific forest techniques in forest management to enable sustained timber production; as a result of which the village communities lost their traditional right to the forest and their resources. The state transformation of mixed forest of conifers and broad leaved species into pure stands of commercially valuable conifers production manipulation of a delicate ecosystem leading to ecological degradation of the region. In fear that the village communities would against to rationalized timber production, by continuing to make customary uses of the forest by grazing, lopping and burning of the forest; thereby, the colonial state adopted silvi-cultures techniques, where it manipulated these practices to serve the end of commercial forest. The forest is used for commercial purpose like timbers, woods, and railway road. etc. This lead to erosion of community ownership and social bonds that had regulated the customary use of the forest, as a result, lead to alienation of communities from the nature.
. And (CHAPTER 7 & 8) Guha talk about history of an Environment movement and the Movement found it’s successful in the traditional society and ecology of the region on Uttarakhand, located in the foothill of the Himalaya in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The northern part of this region were agrarian hierarchy which was dominated by the landowner, whose land was leased out to cultivators, the peasants of pre-colonial had a direct and symbolic relationship with the king. The king (raja) owned for name sakes; all the land, the cultivators had vested right to the zaminder or landlord and government officials and their forest was exploited by the government for making railway line and timbers. This, Guha claims, has made popular resistance here less subjest to the personal violence as protest has been directed more at government officials without a long term stake in the areas, many of them were driven out from their forest areas through non-violent means by the common people for protection of the forest land. The people carry out a mass movement so called Chipko movement and it has received a great deal of international attention over the last past decades. This movement is carry out in a peaceful way, Gandhian, environmental movement, which ashes forces of the peasants, especially women to stop deforestation through non-violence resistance. “Chipko” which means “to hug”, it has become a model for protecting environmental degradation in the agrarian societies. The people successfully protected the forest through mass movement and gain the great fame all over the country as well as give them a new ideas of unification to live in ecofriendly manner with nature.
In conclusion, Ramachandra Guha’s book mainly talk about the sociopolitical relation toward ecology and environmental management in Uttarakhand and lower Himalayan forest land. The way he give the detail history of social protest in Uttarakhand is highly informative and insightful. His writing provides the new field of perspective into the foundation and ideologies on the Chipko Movement was based. Guha’s ideas is radical interpretation of chipko as primary battle of survival and mode of exertion of traditional Forest Right for the peasants. The general perspective of a feminist, Gahdhian and environmentalist movement, which provided the social and environmental communities with an opportunity to perceives the Chipko Movement with a fresh successful ideas. In the contemporary context, this book help the readers to understand the total systematic change in the which-ever battle for which they struggle. This movement give them an opportunity to appreciate and inspired by the agents who mobilized mass energies to bring about significant social change. Chipko Movement is one of the most successful environment protection movement carried out by the common peoples in India as well as in the world. And this social movement inspired to the people of an areas to demand a separate state of Uttarakhand. According to Guha, the Uttarakhand movement stemmed from the chipko movement itself, both movement identified the problem as the administration’s facilitation of resources exploitation by external agencies and suggested a solution of local control over natural and political resources. The Unqueit Woods is one of the best book I have ever read on environment and I too belief that protection of the environment is our duties and responsibilities here on earth.
The India’s polity has experienced a “growing crisis of governability” in the two decades since 1967. Critically assess appear valid today in the light of political developments since 1989.
The India’s polity has experienced a growing crisis of governability from his analyses of political changes in India from 1960s to the late 1980s and had experienced a growing crisis of governability. According to him, “crisis of governability” is caused by the organizational vacuum; it left after the congress party’s position weakened without being replaced by some regional parties. Especially, the political parties of West Bengal and Tamil Nadu were emerging stronger. He define the concept of governability with direct attention to state’s capacities to govern the state. He said that for India situation, the issues of its growing crisis of governability refers to three kind of problem:
- Absence of the enduring coalition
- Policy ineffectiveness, and
- Incapacity to accommodate political conflict without violence.
He knows the pursuit of political goals by violent means as the most obvious indicator of increasing problems of governability. Based on his analysis, political violence had increased after decline of congress party and growing crisis of governability in the India state.
Crisis of governability: the crises of governability is growing in India and the author attempt to explain the root of the crisis. Detail investigation of local, regional and national politics leads to the proposition that the root of India’s growing problem of governability are more political and socio-economic: that is, they are located mainly in India’s political structure. A highly interventionist state dealing with a poor economy has become an object of the intense political completion. The failure of political leaders to make timely concession has only intensified political demand and activities. And the growing weakness of fragmented political parties which both reflect the process of over politicization and which has made it more difficult for the leaders to rule effectively.
The empirical study: the contemporary of Indian politics as being in crisis does not predict the eminent break down of the democratic political order. The ‘crisis’ and ‘governability’ are the two separate words to be understood. The word crisis is used to draw the attention to certain tendencies toward the study of deterioration within the Indian policy. And the governability is used the capacity of the ruler to do three thing: Maintain the coalitional support, Initiate solutions to the problems perceived to be important and resolved political conflict without force and violence. The instability of coalition form of government and emergence of low-quality leaders with ineffective and corruption of the government are the problem of the governability. The pattern of political change at various level of the polity; like, declining of the congress party and popular new party arises causes the consequences of the growing gap between institution capacities and problem require political solution. The country can be well govern if its government can simultaneously sustain legitimacy, promote socio-economics development and maintain order without coercion.
The analytical argument: the analysis of India governability crises has found on the growing disjunction between weakening institution and multiplying demands. The fore going empirical analysis has suggested four major factors have influenced the nature of political change in India:
- The deinstitutionalization role of national and regional leaders.
- The impact of weak political parties.
- The undisciplined political mobilization of various caste, ethnic, religious and other types of group. And
- The increasing conflict between the have and have not in the civil society.
We need to understand the four variable that they are independent only insofar as they are not fully reducible to one another. The four significant independence variable can be readily collapsed into larger analytical categories as they are concerning of power distribution and conflict access to the state resources. Analysis of India’s growing governability crisis as an inevitable by product of modernization in general and economic development in particular. So, the state is not only an agent of political order in India but it is responsible for promoting socio-economic development.
Thus, a crisis of governability is understood in this study to be manifest not only in growing political violence but also in the state’s developmental incapacity. The crisis is on the conflict over power, status and economic resources based on caste, languages, regions, and new identities based on occupation toward the ruling of the government. The rising of regional party and the declining of congress party which lead to the new era of coalition form of government in India’s politics, except this new BJP government got the majority to form a government without coalition in the recent election 2014. Many strategies, including the use of violence, vote bank politic and money power has been used to gain the power. However as the citizens of India, we must understand how the power is won and how the power is used? It’s very important to understand Indian political system to over-come the growing crisis of governability.
The good citizen choose criticism over exit from the state: The good citizen can be understood from the Plato’s the Apology; the Apology is an account of speech Socrates makes at the trails in the court, in which he is charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities and corrupting the youth of Athens. Thus Socrates attempts to defend himself and his conduct, to prove as a good citizen. He criticize the state recognized gods by inventing new belief to other gods; teaching to the youths of Athens his philosophy by proving other wise men as ignorance. And criticism is his option to ensure a better life, better services to the state instead of exit from the state.
Exit and voice; again exit can discuss from Albert O. Hirschman’s voice, exit and loyalty speaks about the similarities between customers of a firm and the citizen of the state. In order to insure that customer or citizen stay loyal and do not leave; the firm or state has to ensure the continued level of service. When customers or citizens dissatisfaction with the organization, they ultimately choose voice or exit: one ‘exit’ is for the member to quit the organization and the other ‘voice’ is for the member to agitate and exert influence for change from within. It is easier for the customer to leave company and buy a rivals product. Similarly, for citizen can exit from the state. However the good citizen did not withdraw from the state but they try to repair the relationship through criticizing to the state.
Good and bad citizen by Socrates; Socrates speak ‘good and bad’ citizens in his trail by saying a bad citizen does harm to those near him and the wishes to be harm, then Socrates who would not intentionally corrupt the youth around him; either he corrupts unintentionally or does not corrupt the court in meant for intentional action, as unintentional harm could be solved by education. Thus Socrates has been shown to be intentionally doing no harm. His ideas of the good citizen is very clear that who does a good things for the state and around him intentionally is a good citizen. While unintentionally harm to the state or who around him can be solved by educating. He educate the youth of Athens intentionally by criticizing the state recognized gods, while inventing new deities and new philosophies.
He gain the regard of the youths of Athens by his work; in order to spread this peculiars wisdom Socrates explain that he considered it his duty to question supposed ‘wise’ men and to expose their false wisdom as ignorance. This activities earn him much admiration amongst the youth of Athens but much hated and anger from the people he embarrassed. Thus, Socrates said that because of the one life is at the stake does not meant that an action is less good or bad (this seem like Kent) dishonoring is still to be avoided. Like a soldier station at post, Socrates stop examine other merely because of the threat of death. Fearing death presupposes knowledge of death would have assume that death is the biggest bad. Thus would prove Socrates a charlatan-instead. Socrates says he will not stop practicing philosophy as demand by the god. Socrates does a service to the city of Athens which cannot be replaced; it is a moral evil to unjustly condemn a man especially one who is attempting to the better city. Since he has spent his life freely offering to the service to the city, which clearly shows that Socrates has a great citizen of Athens.
Criticism and exit: the good citizen criticize the state instead of exit from the state. Socrates argues that he has intentionally stay out of politics because he have been killed long ago for opposing the popular assembly; thus if one want to fight for what is just, he must do it personally and not publicly. And he did not accept exile from the state but he try to change from within the state through criticizing. His position of the criticism initially appear quite analogues to the position claimed by the standard Athenian politicians; Socrates claim to be civic minded activities who sought to improve the ‘polis’. Yet ‘Socrates politics’ reject trying to persuade mass audience and Socrates ethics is the matter of private conscience rather than social control. He criticizes the assembly for its illegal action and the Athenians court for the east with which matter of justice are distorted by emotional pleading. Socrates implies that the very nature of democracy make it a corrupt political system. The bitter experience has taught him that most people must content with a superficial understanding of the most urgent human question; when they are given great, their shallowness inevitably lead to injustice.
Socrates tells his democratic audience that he was right to have withdrawn from the political life in the state because a good citizen who fight for justice in a democracy will be killed. However he denied to accept exit from the state because no matter where he go, young men will listen to him and he will be driven out. He said, Life without examination is not worth living for death cannot shown to be bad. Example of the important of criticism;
- In his famous passage, Socrates linens himself to a gadfly stinging the lazy horse which is the Athenian state, without him(Socrates) claim the state is liable to draft into a deep sleep but through his influence-irritating as it may be to some, it can be waken into productive virtuous action. His criticizes and did not exit from the state.
- Gao Zhishing Chinese Human Right Activist in 2005 bring into trail in China for criticizing the state. However he is exit from the state.
Exit in the modern context: in the modern context, the exit need not be only physical but it can be mental or emotional. For example, under communalism many could not physically exit the country but they did not want to participate in the system either. In this cases, the citizen could be said to exile from the civic or political participate as they were either loyal to the party or state nor were they willing to voice their dissatisfaction. Because doing so could lead to imprisonments, exile, or even death. Many citizen thus, mentally and emotionally exited their countries for the duration of the repressive regimes they did not agree with but felt they could not fight or topple. The consequences of this exit can sometimes provide an explanation for why voters turn out is often low in countries where free elections are being held for the first time in the year. They did not participate anything in the politics activities or affairs of the state. However they try to bring changes through criticizing.
The political organization and citizen’s criticism: Albert O. Hirschman’s ideas of ‘exit and voice’ can be used as a tool of criticism to the state by the citizen. The member of an organization or a state have essentially two possible responses when they perceived that the organization is demonstrating a decrease in benefit to the member;
- ‘Exit’ is for the member to withdraw a relationship from the organization. It may be not only physically exit from the state but mentally exit and emotionally exit from the state. Exit refer to the fact that the customers or members of a firm or organization can simply leave organization. Example (a). When the customer withdraw from the relationship of the companies, they can decides not to buy a product from a specific corporation. (b). A voter can drop affiliation with a political party. (c). A parent withdraw her child from a govt. school. And (d). A citizen can emigrate from the state.
- ‘Voice’ is a communication of the two or more parties where the customers or members are sending their massage to the organization in a form of the complaint, grievance or proposal for change. It is refer to the expression of discontent; the natural human tendency of complaining and protesting. It is use by the citizen of the state to repair or improve the relationship, influencing for change ‘from within’, through country may respond to increasing political repression in three ways; (a) protest and (b) agitation and argument and (c). Criticism.
Exit and Voice themselves represent a union between economic and political action.
– Exit is associated with Adam Smith’s invisible hand, in which buyers and the sellers are free to move silently through the market, constantly forming and destroying relationship.
-Voice on the other hand is by nature of political and at times confrontation. Example, Jamaica demonstration. While both exit and voice used as criticism to the organization and lead to measure a decline in the organization, thus the organization observe the situation and review, address as a matter of course and increasing the growth of the member’s satisfaction and loyal.
The interplay of these concept turns out to illuminate a wide range of economic and political phenomena. As the author states in the preface “ having found my own unifying way of looking at issues as diverse as competition and the two party system, divorce and the American character, black power and the failure of unhappy to officials to resign over Vietnam, I decided to let myself go a little”.
So, good citizen criticizes to improve the state, however they don’t leave the state.