The good citizen choose criticism over exit from the state: The good citizen can be understood from the Plato’s the Apology; the Apology is an account of speech Socrates makes at the trails in the court, in which he is charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities and corrupting the youth of Athens. Thus Socrates attempts to defend himself and his conduct, to prove as a good citizen. He criticize the state recognized gods by inventing new belief to other gods; teaching to the youths of Athens his philosophy by proving other wise men as ignorance. And criticism is his option to ensure a better life, better services to the state instead of exit from the state.
Exit and voice; again exit can discuss from Albert O. Hirschman’s voice, exit and loyalty speaks about the similarities between customers of a firm and the citizen of the state. In order to insure that customer or citizen stay loyal and do not leave; the firm or state has to ensure the continued level of service. When customers or citizens dissatisfaction with the organization, they ultimately choose voice or exit: one ‘exit’ is for the member to quit the organization and the other ‘voice’ is for the member to agitate and exert influence for change from within. It is easier for the customer to leave company and buy a rivals product. Similarly, for citizen can exit from the state. However the good citizen did not withdraw from the state but they try to repair the relationship through criticizing to the state.
Good and bad citizen by Socrates; Socrates speak ‘good and bad’ citizens in his trail by saying a bad citizen does harm to those near him and the wishes to be harm, then Socrates who would not intentionally corrupt the youth around him; either he corrupts unintentionally or does not corrupt the court in meant for intentional action, as unintentional harm could be solved by education. Thus Socrates has been shown to be intentionally doing no harm. His ideas of the good citizen is very clear that who does a good things for the state and around him intentionally is a good citizen. While unintentionally harm to the state or who around him can be solved by educating. He educate the youth of Athens intentionally by criticizing the state recognized gods, while inventing new deities and new philosophies.
He gain the regard of the youths of Athens by his work; in order to spread this peculiars wisdom Socrates explain that he considered it his duty to question supposed ‘wise’ men and to expose their false wisdom as ignorance. This activities earn him much admiration amongst the youth of Athens but much hated and anger from the people he embarrassed. Thus, Socrates said that because of the one life is at the stake does not meant that an action is less good or bad (this seem like Kent) dishonoring is still to be avoided. Like a soldier station at post, Socrates stop examine other merely because of the threat of death. Fearing death presupposes knowledge of death would have assume that death is the biggest bad. Thus would prove Socrates a charlatan-instead. Socrates says he will not stop practicing philosophy as demand by the god. Socrates does a service to the city of Athens which cannot be replaced; it is a moral evil to unjustly condemn a man especially one who is attempting to the better city. Since he has spent his life freely offering to the service to the city, which clearly shows that Socrates has a great citizen of Athens.
Criticism and exit: the good citizen criticize the state instead of exit from the state. Socrates argues that he has intentionally stay out of politics because he have been killed long ago for opposing the popular assembly; thus if one want to fight for what is just, he must do it personally and not publicly. And he did not accept exile from the state but he try to change from within the state through criticizing. His position of the criticism initially appear quite analogues to the position claimed by the standard Athenian politicians; Socrates claim to be civic minded activities who sought to improve the ‘polis’. Yet ‘Socrates politics’ reject trying to persuade mass audience and Socrates ethics is the matter of private conscience rather than social control. He criticizes the assembly for its illegal action and the Athenians court for the east with which matter of justice are distorted by emotional pleading. Socrates implies that the very nature of democracy make it a corrupt political system. The bitter experience has taught him that most people must content with a superficial understanding of the most urgent human question; when they are given great, their shallowness inevitably lead to injustice.
Socrates tells his democratic audience that he was right to have withdrawn from the political life in the state because a good citizen who fight for justice in a democracy will be killed. However he denied to accept exit from the state because no matter where he go, young men will listen to him and he will be driven out. He said, Life without examination is not worth living for death cannot shown to be bad. Example of the important of criticism;
- In his famous passage, Socrates linens himself to a gadfly stinging the lazy horse which is the Athenian state, without him(Socrates) claim the state is liable to draft into a deep sleep but through his influence-irritating as it may be to some, it can be waken into productive virtuous action. His criticizes and did not exit from the state.
- Gao Zhishing Chinese Human Right Activist in 2005 bring into trail in China for criticizing the state. However he is exit from the state.
Exit in the modern context: in the modern context, the exit need not be only physical but it can be mental or emotional. For example, under communalism many could not physically exit the country but they did not want to participate in the system either. In this cases, the citizen could be said to exile from the civic or political participate as they were either loyal to the party or state nor were they willing to voice their dissatisfaction. Because doing so could lead to imprisonments, exile, or even death. Many citizen thus, mentally and emotionally exited their countries for the duration of the repressive regimes they did not agree with but felt they could not fight or topple. The consequences of this exit can sometimes provide an explanation for why voters turn out is often low in countries where free elections are being held for the first time in the year. They did not participate anything in the politics activities or affairs of the state. However they try to bring changes through criticizing.
The political organization and citizen’s criticism: Albert O. Hirschman’s ideas of ‘exit and voice’ can be used as a tool of criticism to the state by the citizen. The member of an organization or a state have essentially two possible responses when they perceived that the organization is demonstrating a decrease in benefit to the member;
- ‘Exit’ is for the member to withdraw a relationship from the organization. It may be not only physically exit from the state but mentally exit and emotionally exit from the state. Exit refer to the fact that the customers or members of a firm or organization can simply leave organization. Example (a). When the customer withdraw from the relationship of the companies, they can decides not to buy a product from a specific corporation. (b). A voter can drop affiliation with a political party. (c). A parent withdraw her child from a govt. school. And (d). A citizen can emigrate from the state.
- ‘Voice’ is a communication of the two or more parties where the customers or members are sending their massage to the organization in a form of the complaint, grievance or proposal for change. It is refer to the expression of discontent; the natural human tendency of complaining and protesting. It is use by the citizen of the state to repair or improve the relationship, influencing for change ‘from within’, through country may respond to increasing political repression in three ways; (a) protest and (b) agitation and argument and (c). Criticism.
Exit and Voice themselves represent a union between economic and political action.
– Exit is associated with Adam Smith’s invisible hand, in which buyers and the sellers are free to move silently through the market, constantly forming and destroying relationship.
-Voice on the other hand is by nature of political and at times confrontation. Example, Jamaica demonstration. While both exit and voice used as criticism to the organization and lead to measure a decline in the organization, thus the organization observe the situation and review, address as a matter of course and increasing the growth of the member’s satisfaction and loyal.
The interplay of these concept turns out to illuminate a wide range of economic and political phenomena. As the author states in the preface “ having found my own unifying way of looking at issues as diverse as competition and the two party system, divorce and the American character, black power and the failure of unhappy to officials to resign over Vietnam, I decided to let myself go a little”.
So, good citizen criticizes to improve the state, however they don’t leave the state.