Trade unions, cooperatives and NGOs are three organizational forms impact in the expansion and deepening of democracy in India.

Trade unions, cooperatives and NGOs are three organizational forms that contemporary social interventions often assume as they engage in the task of challenging the marginalization and disenfranchisement of particular constituencies.  From the readings select one example of each kind of organization, discuss their attempts to claim and secure rights, and examine their relative impact in the expansion and deepening of democracy in India.


Trade union: Trade Union is an organization of employees formed to bargain with the employer for their wages, rise in the standard of living, their right (safety and security) and interest. Self-employed Women Workers (SEWA) is a trade union registered in 1972 at the Ahmedabad in state of Gujarat. It is a trade union for poor, self-employed women workers in India. The SEWA was founded by the noted Gandhian and Civil Right leader Dr. Ela Bhatt, and the organization members were women who earn a living through their own labors or small businesses. The workers do not get regular salaried employment with welfare benefits like workers in organized sector. SEWA is strongly supported by World Bank,  ILO and Indian Government in some extent, which holds it out as a model to be replicated elsewhere. SEWA’s successful efforts have mobilized large numbers of poor self-employed women for employment, and their main goals are to organized women workers for full employment which includes income security, food security, and social security. It is one of the most successful trade unions in India. However, the SEWA is not only trade union, it is a movement of several interconnected type of organization supporting informal women workers, including cooperation, social security organizations, saving and credit groups, a banks a housing trust and many others were all under Sewa Umbrella.

Cooperative: cooperative is a jointly owned commercial enterprise usually organized by famers or consumer or group of individual that produces and distribute goods and services for a common purpose or benefit, and it is run for the benefit of its owners or association. Charaka Women’s Multipurpose Cooperative Society: it is a rural producer cooperative owned and managed by the women. They are getting handloom Jubbas and other ready to wear at reasonable prices. Their main aim is not on profit but to give more employment and decent wages to many as possible, and run the cooperative society without loss. The central ideas of Charaka are giving provision of livelihood to the people and there are compromised where provision of employment and welfare of labors is concern. Lastly, the difficulties they face in running the cooperative society can be summarized that, in the initial stage the society has run of money for six months, there was no money to pay the workers’ wages and when there is no work, it is difficult to handle the payment of the employees. So far, so good, the Charaka cooperative society is running smoothly.

NGOs: NGO is an organization that is not the part of the local, state or federal government. Sangeeta Kamat’s paper on ‘the privatization of public interest; theorizing NGO discourse in a neoliberal era,’ mainly analyzed the contemporary context of the neoliberal economic model’s policies, where the privatization of the public interest emerging in the society, and the central role of NGO in the democratization of the civil society. The author exemplifies the conflict between private interest and public interest, and the ascendancy of NGOs is theorized in this context. Therefore, the recent neoliberal policy position of the NGO and their role like pluralization the public sphere and depoliticizing the private sphere in promoting governance through democratic process in the modern society, at the local, national and international level are organized and maintained as a legal organization.

Critically analysis with the example of their relative impact and their attempts to claim in the expansion and deepening of democracy in India:

Trade union: SEWA is a trade union which contributes to running of the democracy in many ways. Since the union registered in 1972 under the leadership of Ela Bhatt, they always focus on one over-riding reality in democratic meant that secure employment and self-reliance. SEWA is functioning of its rotating collective leadership system, and continues to emphasize Gandhian value, in particular simplicity and tolerance.  It is an organization of the poor, and self-employed women workers. Their main aim is to empower the women by organizing the unorganized women workers into organized workers.  The unorganized labor forces of the women remain uncounted, undercounted and invisible. However, SEWA give them happy livelihood in secure and stable jobs. SEWA not only trade union, it is a movement of several interconnected type of organization supporting informal women workers, including cooperation, social security organizations, saving and credit groups, a banks a housing trust and many others were all under SEWA umbrella. Thereby, the SEWA expansion from trade union to other, cooperative, banking, organization, academic and training centre and their relative impact in the expansion and deepening of democracy in India.

Cooperative: Charaka Women’s Multipurpoe Cooperative Society: Charaka was registered as the cooperative Society in 1996, and they are rural producers which are owned by the women. Charaka as a cooperative, it’s at heart a particular form of business. The society run for non-profit but to sustain by giving appropriate wages to the workers. Since, giving provisional of livelihood to the people, they don’t compromised the provision of employment and welfare of the labors is concern, which is highly appreciated. It provide a valuable gain to its members just a successful corporate provides gains to its shareholders. Thereby, economic sustainability is as crucial to a cooperative as it is to a corporate. So, how the Charaka should be improve in order to sustain? Charaka can be improve by giving same dedication from all the workers. However, some workers are not interested but they work just they were paid; they should understand it properly that it should not be the motives to received salary and go away at the end of the day, when the workers are improving the livelihood from the Charaka. All the workers should work hard and give the same dedication to their works, so they will get more benefit from their cooperative society. The Charaka Cooperative Society faced many difficulties and problem; one of their main problem in the initial stage was that, the they have financial crisis for six months they has to be closed because there was no money to pay to the workers’ wages. According to Ms. Gauramma who was the first president of the society says “those were the frightening time because no-one was sure what would happen next? Whether it would be possible to continue at all? Second problem is when there no works, it was very hard to handle for the administrators of the society to pay a salary to the employers. And some men employers demanded to be paid for monthly salary. According to Chandrakala, “she find it difficult to turn down such request, it is not a request that can be accepted either because then everyone will have to paid a monthly salary wages regardlessly of whether or not there is work.” Therefore, the pieces rate of the payment are seasonal, which is very true in this context. This cooperative is contributing to democracy by empowering women workers through self-reliance and their social security’s, and they were the part of people’s movement. However, the neoliberal economic policy toward free-market economy can weaken the cooperative society.

NGOs: NGOs have become a global phenomenon, emerging with amazing alacrity in the countries merely on the threshold of establishing democratic state (Henderson, 2002; Kuropas, 1997). NGOs, conventionally understand as a part of the civil society, are remaking of state institutions and state processes, as much as they are part of re-configuring the civil society. Sangeeta Kamat (2004). The author analysis focus on the role of the NGOs and promoting governance in the contemporary neoliberal policy in the functioning of the state, and the relationship between private interest and public good are myriad of social, political and economic institution, at local and global level.

I strongly believe that most of the NGOs are representing the public interest directly or indirectly in the contemporary neoliberal economic policy model, at the local and international level in promoting good governance in many nations through democratic ways;

First, NGOs are working to establish awareness of and respect for the right of individuals to exercise freedoms of expression, assembly and association, which is crucial to participatory democracy.

Second, NGOs are working to ensure that there is a level playing field upon which candidates for elective office can compete and that the entire elections process is free and fair.

Third, NGOs are working to build and strengthen the rule of just laws and responsive and accountable institutions of government so that the rights of individuals are protected regardless of which per sons or parties may be in office at any given time.

Other elements that constitute representative democracy; The importance of good governance, a government by the people that is accountable, transparent, and willing to accept constraints on power and cede it peacefully, and flourishing through civil society.

NGOs play a vital role in all three areas. Other governments, however, feel threatened by their work. In many countries, we see disturbing attempts to intimidate NGOs and restrict or shut them down. The recent assessment of the National Endowment for

Democracy captures this growing challenge. The conclusions are sobering. States are developing and using tools to subvert, suppress and silence these organizations


  1. Recently BPP led Modi government has dismiss the 40 plus NGO funds from outside, including Greenpeace and Oxfam.
  2. Russia is not the only country where NGOs face serious challenges.
  3. The Chinese government applies burdensome requirements to groups attempting to register as NGOs.

We need to ensure that NGO protection is an integral part of our diplomacy. Thereby, in my personal views, the increasing worldwide demand for greater personal and political freedom often reflected in the work of these NGOs is the growing recognition that democracy is the form of government that can best meet the demands of citizens for dignity, liberty, and equality.

Conclusion: Trade unions, cooperatives and NGOs are three organizational forms those contemporary social interventions in development of a nation and secure rights, and relative impact in the expansion and deepening of democracy in India in many ways. Firstly, the trade union like SEWA, give self-employment to the poor women, gives those jobs security, income security and social security through women empowerment and self-reliance.  These are the best examble of social interventions engage in the task of challenging the marginalization and disenfranchisement of particular areas. Secondly, Cooperative like Charaka Women’s Multipurpose Cooperative Society, gives training to the women to produce handloom Jubbas and other ready to wear at reasonable prices and other items. The cooperative society gives them job according to the works condition. They sustains their livelihood from the cooperative initiated programmed, and their main goal is to give more employment to the under privilege women. This kind of cooperative society is giving security in income, employment, social security and promote livelihood and help the marginalized group of people to bring into people movement toward socio-economic development. And lastly, NGOs has become one of the famous institution is 21st century, which they represent the people interest in many countries. In present neoliberal economic policy model, NGOs plays the central role in democratic nations; because most of the NGOs whether in local or International level were working in the interest and the right of the people, and working to build and strengthen the rule of laws and responsive in democratic countries. In the end, the NGOs roles in pluralization the public sphere and depoliticizing the private sphere in promoting governance through democratic process in the modern society are very much helping in deepening the democracy of India.

NOTE: 1,986 words.


Micromax phone

 Mobile Phone on Micromax Company.

Introduction: Micromax phone is one of the most famous Indian phone manufacturing company located its headquartered in Gurgoan, haryana, India. Micromax started as an IT software company in 2000 and work on embedded platforms. It entered the mobile business and become one of the largest Indian Domestic Mobile Company operating in low cost feature phone segments by 2010.  In 2014, Micromax is the 10th largest Smartphone Vendor in the world. The Micromax phone manufacturing company is founded by Rahul Sharma, Vikas Jain, Sumeet Arora, and Rajesh Agarwal at Deihi India on 29th 2000. It brand can only serve in India, Russia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal.  Many Indian youngsters, economist, academicians, politicians and intellects support the company for promotion of “Make in India” campaign in India. In India, the largest commodity used by many youngsters and common citizens is a mobile phone, phone is using everywhere and whenever they go and it is the most important commodity used for communication. Micromax phone can give the facilities like Samsung, Apple, Xaomi, and other. The company strictly follows the Ethics eBook, Media Law and Copy Right. This company can give the best facilities and services to their customers; their customer support officers are available 24 x 7 and they are happy to help the customer.

Main context of Micromax Phone: the Micromax phone is one of the most trusted Indian brands, which give number of facilities and sell out in cheap and affordable price in the Indian Market. The main context of the Micromax Phone can be discus in more detail as under:

  • Communication: Micromax phone is one of the best I ever used, it give the highest level of satisfaction in communication through phone. We can communicate with this phone in many ways; calling one another, can be talk with group of peoples through conference call, video calling, sending massages, and leaving voice massages, and so on. Thereby, it gives good services in communication.
  • Watching movies and songs: Micromax Canvas is a smart phone, which is very comfortable to watch movies and other short movies clips. The new brand phone gives excellent facilities for listening song. We can adjust and change the tunes, base, and so on.
  • Camera: we can take a clear picture from this phone, the camera on this phone is very good and can be sent or upload that picture directly to YouTube, Facebook, WhatsApp and Bluetooth.
  • Downloading picture, songs, movies and others apps: the phone give the downloading facitities which include; songs, movies, games, and other apps.
  • Using WhatsApp, Facebook and others: Micromax phone is very comfortable especially, when using Facebook and WhatsApp. Since the phone support 3G and 4G the internet strength is very strong and the customers trusted the brand.
  • Dictionary: we can see any English Words Meaning in dictionary from the phone; we can also translate foreign languages into English through this phone.
  • We can take note: in some meeting or in seminars or in any event, we used to carry pen and note book for taking. However, this phone gives the best facilities to take note on this phone.
  • Recording: we can take any recording, most of the time, when we go to take interview and have conversations with some important persons, in that time we just take recording.
  • Map and direction: this new brand phone gives the direction and map, both online and offline. We can see any part of the world, and we can check out the direction where-ever we wish to go.
  • FM Radio: there was time we used to listen FM Radio, and news in the Radio, now we can listen in this phone with more clarity and accurately.
  • News: this phone gives the facilities to watch the News in live and we can read all the newspapers through this phone.

Critically analyzes the ethical issues surrounding Micromax Phone with an example:  we can perfectly enjoy movies, videos, games and many others in the Micromax phone. However there are some set of rules playing as an ethical protection of the Micromax Company, and customers’ right were given under the company rules.

Legal and morality: in the instruction there is clearly mention that the product can be selling on India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Russia.  Any customer can claim their right, if anything happen on their commodity, while the goods/phone are under warranty. If any customers using their product for bad purpose or illegally like, taking dirty picture or video and using in social media then this effect the morality and such action are illegal, the company is not responsible for misconduct of the customers. However, the persons are going to take responsible for his/her actions. The companies highly recommend using for good purposes.

Media Law and Ethics eBook:  the company should maintain and work under the guideline of the Media Law and Ethics eBook in order to avoid any illegal activities and punishment. The customers of the company can get the free app, by entering their email address or mobile phone number. There are rules, acts and ethics surrounding the print, electronic, and film and advertising media.

Direction: the company enjoys the freedom to promote their brand under the direction given in the Indian constitution.  The workers of the company should respect the rule and regulation of the company and work under the direction of the company. When the company employers deny working under the company direction, and effect to any other companies or to harm anybody; which is ethically wrong under company term and condition of the company, then the company will take serious action against the employers and compensate to the affected party.

Ethics and Norms: the company strictly follows the terms and conditions in order to maintain Ethics and Norms, as well as ethics and its norm surrounding technology for independent living.

Copy right: there is a strict rule to maintain the copy right in manufacturing the phone. No company can copy for other company without concerning them. If any company copy others company model or design or anything then that is illegal, and which is an ethical; thereby, the company did not copy from the other companies and they protect their copy right from other.

Conclusion: Micromax phone is Indian manufacturing company located at Gurgoan, Haryana India. It started as an IT software company in 2000 and promotes their brand at Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Russia. Micromax is one of the largest domestic manufacturing mobile phone in the market and 10th largest Smartphone vendors in the world.  Micromax Company is supported by many citizens of India and it is more popular recently, “Make in India” campaign by BJP led Mr. Modiji all around India. The emerging company trying to compete with giant company likes Apple, Samsung and Xaomi in the market. The Micromax mobile phone is one of the most popular commodities using to communication and other purposes.  The main context of the Micromax phone are; calling, communication, movies, music and song, games, camera, downloading song and movies, note taking, map and direction, recording, news from various channels and newspaper. Ethical issues surrounding Micromax phone; the company provides a good services to the citizens of India. They follow the Media Law and Ethics eBook while manufacturing the mobile phone. The company and their employers are working in certain direction in order to avoid any unwanted circumstances which are illegal or unethical. The company is maintaining ethics and norms to promote their brand and to compete with other companies. The Micromax Company strictly follows and respects the “Copy Right” in Mobile Manufacturing World. Thereby, Micromax is the best phone I have used so far. Many youngsters including me are very much support the campaign “Make in India”. I like Micromax and I am a fan of this company.


  2. Micromax guidebook (Canvas 96)

Collection about Naga Political history

(2) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (4) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (6) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (9) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (10) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (11) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (12) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (13) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (14) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (15) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (17) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (18) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (19) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (20) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (21) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (22) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (23) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (24) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (26) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (28) The Tangkhul Political Analysis (29) The Tangkhul Political Analysis “Work for peace and unity” _ The Morung Express 1 Nagalim Times 12United Naga Council 27.05.2014-libre A SHORT TREATISE ON NAGA AND MANIPUR HISTORIES A.Z. Phizo’s in 1951 Plepecites speech. AFSPA CONPA affirms to strengt…ty _ The Morung Express ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD NAGALIM AND kuknalin Events in Ukhrul and the…y challenged Government GoI to Complete Talks wi… Year » Northeast Today Historical fact of Naga by Dr. VK nuh I have a clear vision for Naga people importand phone no of NSU in defferent cities INDIAN GREATEST MISTAKE IN MY TIMES indo-naga peace talk. indo-naga peace talk ITR Presentation Kharingyo shimrah Kuda Village condemn AR …nt _ The Morung Express Kukis is a refugies in history Let me tell you about Ukhrul Town Letter to R N Ravi Nagas Interrogator Mass peace rally on April 14 Mr. kiren Rijiju on Naga Naga Hoho_ BJP will Solv…Issue » Northeast Today Naga Journal by kharingyo collection Naga Nationalism Belongs…eople » Northeast Today Naga peace Talk vikas k Naga peace talks_ Need t…ections – Deccan Herald Naga talks reach crucial stage Naga Talks7 NAGA VIILAGE ADM Nagaland Nagas and Nagas residing in other state nagaland-s-demographic-somersault-how-reliable-are-india-s-official-statistics Nagalim Times north east in indian cities notheasthern are not welcome NSCN (IM) ‘provoked’ by …ng _ The Morung Express NSCN (I-M) flays ‘attemp… Police _ Nagaland Post nscn conflic with GOI Nscn STAND BY KHEKIYE SEMA Nyusou and Komow – Nagaland communitization of health (1) OINAM INCIDENT On March 4, 1974 a Naga girl was raped by the Indian armies. This is the touching letter she wrote to her boyfriend before she committed suicide Peace talk by Vikas k Political negotiation wi…lution within 18 months Remembering the ‘Dark Da…56 _ The Morung Express RN Ravi mum on peace tal… collects border report Tamenglong rally demands…ss _ The Morung Express The Naga first story Armstruggle in india The Naga peace process the naga strory khanamo The Naga Talk The Naga Talk1 The Naga Talk2 The Naga Talk3 The Naga Talk4 The Naga Talk5 The Naga Talk6 The Naga Talk9 The Naga Talk10 The Naga Talk11 The Naga Talk12 The Naga Talk13 The Naga Talk23 The Naga Talk54 The Statesman_ From trib… A difficult transition The Tangkhul Political Analysis The Tangkhul Political Analysis2 True fact Naga history Ukhrul Distric Manipur state Ukhrul District was first marked out as a Sub UNC petitions BJP United Naga Council United Naga Council12 Update 2011- Nagalim www.nagalimvoice.com_speeches_2718_



THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT (RTI ACT): An Act to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, the constitution of a Central Information Commission and State Information Commissions and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Bringing Information to the Citizens:

Right to Information Act 2005 mandates timely response to citizen requests for government information. It is an initiative taken by Department of Personnel and Training, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions to provide a– RTI Portal Gateway to the citizens for quick search of information on the details of first Appellate Authorities, PIOs etc. amongst others, besides access to RTI related information / disclosures published on the web by various Public Authorities under the government of India as well as the State Governments

Objective of the Right to Information Act:

The basic object of the Right to Information Act is to empower the citizens, promote transparency and accountability in the working of the Government, contain corruption, and make our democracy work for the people in real sense. It goes without saying that an informed citizen is better equipped to keep necessary vigil on the instruments of governance and make the government more accountable to the governed. The Act is a big step towards making the citizens informed about the activities of the Government.

How to file RTI Form Application:

First of all know “What is RTI (Right To Information) “? RTI – It is an Act passed by the Indian Parliament in year 2005 under which any Indian Citizen has got right to obtain information from any public authority /Organization about their functioning, administration, Recruitment etc the Right to Information Act or RTI is an act that practically supports and enables citizens to claim their right to information which is guaranteed by the constitution of India. As an applicant, you should know that there is no particular format required. Your application can even be on simple plain paper. Applicants however need to ensure that their contact details including name and correspondence address appear on the application. Reasonable assistance can be expected from the CPIO if you decide to give your application in writing.  Here is the step by step systematic procedure to file RTI application correctly to get Information :

  1. First you need to get the Information about the concerned public authority who is known as PIO (Public Information Officer), every organization has a PIO and their address can be found on their website. If you do not get details of PIO at their website or PORTAL just visit the nearest office of the relevant organization or public authority and get the address of PIO.
  2. Write an application starting with “Request for Information underRight To Information (RTI) Act, 2005”. Mention your query point wise.
  3. There is a nominal fee of Rs 10 for filing RTI which can be through Postal Order/ CRF or by Bank Draft. It should be in favor of Accounts Officer of particular organization. For example, if RTI for SBI Bank, it should be Accounts Officer, SBI payable at location of concerned department of PIO.
  4. You may send it by any mean like post, speed post and online etc. but not by courier.
  5. You must sign the application form.
  6. Finally Acknowledgement: All RTI applications have to be answered in 30 days by respected PIO or Organization. One needs to preserve the application number and date of filing or photocopies for future reference.

HOW LONG IT WILL TAKE: Information sought under the RTI 2005 will be supplied within a time period of 30 days. However it has been stated in the RTI Act 2005 guide that if the information ‘concerns the life and liberty of a person’, it will be supplied in 48 hours. Here are the details of various time limits for receiving information for your RTI application.