Words of great wisdom (The Code of Ethics):

You should rise with the sun to start your daily work, philosophically speaking. Pray before you start every work because work is similar worship. Pray alone and often. The God Spirit will listen your prayer when you seek him whole heartedly: Follow the code of Ethics coming from the words of great wisdom:

  • Try to be tolerant of those who are lost on their path. Ignorance, conceit, anger, jealousy and greed stem from a lost soul. Pray that they can find guidance on earth and for eternal life.
  • You have to search for yourself, by yourself. You need not allow others to make your path for you. It is your road and yours alone. Others may walk it with you, but no one can walk it for you.
  • Learn to respect your body and love other as you love yourself and respect them in a way you want them to respect you.
  • Treat the guests in your home with much consideration. Serve them the best food, give them the best bed and treat them with respect and honor.
  • Help the poor and respect the rich and honor your God in everything you do.
  • Do not take what is not yours whether from a person, a community, the wilderness or from a culture. If it was not earned or given, it is not yours.
  • Respect all things that are placed upon this earth – whether it is people or plant, save the mother-earth and it will save you.
  • Honor other people’s thoughts, wishes and words. Never interrupt another or mock or rudely mimic them. Allow each person the right to personal expression.
  • Never speak of others in a bad way. The negative energy that you put out into the universe will multiply when it returns to you.
  • Virginity is the greatest gift of the women to her husband in marriage. And in human history, all persons make mistakes in various fields. And all mistakes can be forgiven. However, judgement belong to God.
  • Bad thoughts cause illness of the mind, body and spirit. Practice optimism and think positive.
    Nature is a part of us. They are part of your worldly family, especially it belong to the future generation.
    Children are the seeds of our future. Plant love in their hearts and water them with wisdom and life’s lessons. When they are grown, give them space to grow.
  • Avoid hurting the hearts of others. The poison of your pain will return to you because it’s in law of nature.
    Be truthful at all times. Honesty is the test of ones will within this universe.
  • Accept your weakness and strength and live in our own capability world because the talent is real.
  • Keep yourself balanced. Your Mental self, Spiritual self, Emotional self, and Physical self – all need to be strong, pure and healthy. Work out the body to strengthen the mind. Grow rich in spirit to cure emotional ails.
    Make conscious decisions as to who you will be and how you will react. Be responsible for your own actions.
  • Respect the privacy and personal space of others. Do not touch the personal property of others – especially sacred and religious objects. This is forbidden.
  • Always be faithful to yourself and to the people surround you especially to your love one.
    Be true to yourself first. You cannot nurture and help others if you cannot nurture and help yourself first.
  • Respect others religious beliefs. Do not force your belief on others because there is only one true God.
    Share your good fortune with others. Participate in charity and spread love in all nook of the world.
  • In my philosophy, the ultimate end of life is happiness and salvation: be happy while you are living, and your soul will get eternal life after death based on the fulfillment of your duties assign by God.
  • Every creature has their own purpose on earth, and no one can escape from their destiny; however, the free-will that the human have is the extra power that can help us to reach our destiny in better way.
  • Respect the beauty because it is the greatest gift of God after love. Love your God and love all his creation then you will be love by him.
  • I have a destiny, and God is the author of my destiny.

-kharingyo shimrah

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Visiting to Chitradurga construction areas

 

We (The Land Governance Clinic group) went to the side of Chitradurga; we have gone to this spot in light of the fact that we have picked the issue of the unlawful allotment of the Amrit Mahal Kaval fields in Chitradurga district of Karnataka. We are concentrating on the illegal acquisition of land has created disturbance in the ecological landscape, livelihoods of a large number of people and loss of heritage in the district of Chitradurga. In that district has devoid of water, the State has started a vast industrial complex set up in that place where sources of livelihood of the people depend in Amrit Mahal Kavals. We the Land Governance Clinic points need to examine the issue in subtle element and fight to protect the grassland as well as the livelihood of the community. We will strongly advocate the issue of environment harm, loss of livelihood and heritage lost and highlight the unlawful and non-transparent procedures included in this apportioning by the State.

Visiting to the side and Meeting to the local people of Amrit Mahal Kavals:

When we visited to that place, the constructions works has already started and the returning-wall and fencing were completing. We have met and talk with the local people and examined the development in the regions; we have to understand the background of Amrit mahal Kavals with a specific end goal to comprehend the issues. Amrit Mahal has last 10,000 sections of land of touching stretch of fields left in the condition of Karnataka. At the time of independence, Karnataka had more than 45,000 sections of land of Kavals which have now diminished to 30,000 sections of land. The leader of the Mysore Kingdom then had held 240 kavals which secured around 4.13 lakh sections of land of prairie over his kingdom for grassland unique dairy cattle breed called the Amrith Mahal cows. In present day, this grassland has spread over the areas of Chitradurga, Chikkamagalur, Tumkur, Hassan, Shimoga and Mandya. As the British tenet reached an end, these inconceivable extends of area were diminished to only 60,000 sections of land. This is basically on the grounds that the British did not view fields important as they didn’t make any income for the Government. The kaval in Chitradurga was a winter grazing land and considering the significance of the fragile and sensitive ecosystem, the state government designated the land as district forest under the Karnataka Forest Rules, 1969. We come to realize that Since the Amritmahal Kavals have been grazing grounds subsequent to the seventeenth century, customary pastoralism is a noteworthy control of the community that reside in the grassland. Uncontrolled and unregulated redirection of regular direction has been a trouble for hopelessness to a huge number of people and their livelihood whose jobs are subject to them. More than 60 villages are affected by the diversion of grassland. The major occupations of the communities in the Kavals include cattle, sheep and buffalo rearing, collecting firewood, fruits, tubers, medicinal plants and palm leaves for making baskets and mats, and grass for making brooms. Shepherds also collect wool and weave blankets.

We study the secondary data: In 2002, the Karnataka High Court directed the government to protect this land for grazing purposes. However, at last the Amritmahal Kaval grasslands have been transferred to as under;

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) to establish a nuclear enrichment centre, the Defence Research Development Organisation

  1. Defense Research Development Organisation for construction of massive weaponised drone testing and manufacture for civilian and military surveillance
  2. Indian Institute of Science (IISc) to establish a synchrotron and a satellite application centre of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  3. Sagitaur Ventures, a real estate developer in the Information & Technology sector (404 hectares) for a solar plant.
  4. Karnataka Housing board has constructed villas in the Kavals.

 Land Acquisition of Chitradurga from secondary data:

At the time of obtaining the Amrit Mahal Kavals, the Land Acquisition Act 1984 was in force. The Act had ambiguous take on acquisition (definition of public purpose) and compensation. Throughout the years, there were issues in regards to pay and a need to tight down the meaning of open reason. The Land Acquisition Bill acquainted in 2007 attempted with do that, however it lapsed by in 2009. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act 2013, viable for January 1, 2014 redefined public purpose, , mandated Social Impact Assessment, limited the area that can be acquired in case of agricultural land. In any case,  the LARR Ordinance/, LARR (Amendment) Bill 2015 exempts the following types of projects from the provision of consent, social impact assessments and irrigated multi-cropped land: (i). Defense (ii). Rural Infrastructure (iii).Affordable Housing (iv).Industrial Corridors (v).Infrastructure (including PPPs). As for my understanding these exemptions may improve the atmosphere in that area, it become problematic for rural communities which largely depend on agriculture and cattle rearing for their livelihoods. We would like to identify provisions which may result in unjust acquisition and compensation, and suggest an alternative process of carrying out activities of land acquisition and allotment in the effected zone.

I support in development: I stand, that any development should continue legally and in eco-friendly way. In any case, I opposed any sort of development which occur unlawfully and destroying environment-biodiversity. With respect to government stand; I have sympathy toward the local people and concern for biodiversity yet government can take up any development in sustainable and Eco-friendly way.  I support the development in general but in any case, the development should not hurt the sentiment, rights, livelihood and interest. If the progression of development is happening wrongfully and going in against of community then it should stop for time-being, for the interest of the community!

We can work with the community and support their demands?

After visiting to the spot and intellection with the villagers I feel that we can work with the community and support their demand and interest. I though, development is need but the so called development should not take place as its taking place in the Amrit Mahal.  In Case of Protecting and Conserving Challakere’s Amrit Mahal Kavals; and the Livelihoods-Supporting, Biodiversity-Rich and Ecologically-Sensitive Grassland, Biological communities” is reasonable, because during the years 2009-2010, no less than 10,000 sections of land of valuable, biodiversity rich, field biological systems, secured for a considerable length of time as Amrit Mahal Kavals  touching fields in Challakere Taluk of Chitradurga District, were occupied by then Deputy Commissioner of Chitradurga, Mr. Amlan Aditya Biswas, IAS, for different guard, mechanical, framework, institutional and business purposes.  In spite of the way that these decisions may have had the endorsement of the Karnataka Cabinet, the entire practice embraced in far reaching infringement of different laws and without including any of the neighborhood chose governments, neighborhood MLAs, and pertinent offices managing backwoods, lakes, farming, creature cultivation, agriculture, center grounds, arranging, and so forth.  . As a result of the shrouded and uneven choice making that was secured inside diverting the said Kavals, the bona fide method for the regular and social impacts of the endeavor has been gotten away particularly additionally, by implication affected groups, significant administrative powers, and the open free to move around at will. The proposed endeavors are all exceedingly tricky; unsafe likewise, will obliterate the fields, its exceptional biodiversity and occupations of thousands in more than 70 towns. In addition, land for the ventures has been advanced in patent negligence of particular headings of the High Court of Karnataka and Supreme Court of India that such environmentally delicate field biological communities ought not to be redirected for any reason without legal endorsement. I oppose this advancement of development at this areas  in favors of the community stand until the problem is settled and any kind of development should not taking place at Chitradurga in an against of the community interest.

Therefore, I think, all kind of development and the project should be continuing only after the clearance of all legal and environmental issues in proper manner but before that clearance, I strongly opposed any kind of development which affects the livelihood of the community and environment of that areas. Because I/we support development in eco-friendly ways and through legal meant.  I am supporting to the community, because I find that the demand of the community is reasonable and land taken away by the government in the name of the development from the community as “common land” is unfair and illegal in my judgment; where most of them depends their livelihood on that land, and the government should consult to the people and take their consent in the first place.

Subsequently, I/we can backing to the community by supporting and work with community for some reason as under:

  1. To protect their livelihood,
  2. The protect environment and biodiversity.

III. Future health care.

  1. Preserve heritage.
  2. Preserve grazing land and their future generations.

Vi. To improve their product (Meat and blanket).

The affected community should be given appropriate opportunities as a kind of compensation.

 

In support of community rights and interests:

I/we support to the community for their right and for their interest but it doesn’t mean that I oppose development. “My stand; there can be development, only if the development can be taking place in legal mean and in sustainable ways, if not I vehemently opposed development in that areas which affect the livelihood of the community, bringing health problem, and effect their fundamental right and right to life by so called development.”  My concern is the wellbeing and security for the community in term of livelihood, health and future occupation of those regions. I support to the community for some reasons and I considered supporting to them in certain ways and working with the community in this sense.

 

Regards

Kharingyo Henry Shimrah

 

Listen to the words of wisdom coming from the wise man:

Every creature on earth has their own life span; among them human can utilize the free-will power given by God. There is a stage in human life but the rich and poor will be always there at every stage in our society and natural law will never change like other laws. Live as a good example for other; respect the law of God and the law of men and you will be respected.  Enjoy your life in every stage of your journey: before middle age; do not fear, after middle age; do not regret, and do not wait till you cannot even walk just to be sorry and to regret but as long as it is physically possible, visit places you wish to visit.

Time: Under the Sun you can make many sweet memories. Spend time with your families! When there is an opportunity, get together with old friends, classmates, old colleagues, relative and families. The gathering is not just about eating, it just that there is not much time left. There is time for everything, so live according on time or you will regrets.

Money: Men make money, it kept in the bank or it can be earned but may not be really yours. When it is time to spend, just spend it and treat yourself well as you are living. Try to earn respect, moral, character, common sense, trust, patience and love because money can’t buy these things.

Food: Food is for eating so whatever you feel like eating; just eat it because it is most important to be happy.  Some foods are good for health; eat often and more but do not excess because it is not everything. While some food are not good for health; eat less once a while but do not abstain them totally.

Life: Treat your life journey with optimism, whether you are poor or rich; everyone has to go through birth, sickness, personal-problem, aging, happiness and death. There is no exceptional, that is life. Do not be afraid or worried when you are sick, settle all outstanding issues before hand and you will be able to leave without regret.

Duties: Every creature has their own duties on Earth; let the doctor handle your body, let God handle your life but be incharge of your own life as duties and always stay happy. So do what you love and love what you do. However, if worries can solve your problem, then go ahead and worry, if worry can prolong your life, then go ahead and worry and if worry can exchange for happiness, then go ahead and worry! But remember worrisome is not the ultimate solution for your problem; instead be happy while solving your problem but never give up, and live as a channel of blessing for other!

Body: Your body is the temple of God; pay more attention to your body, you can more reliance on yourself on this. Honor your body and soul! Remember old saying “health is wealth”.

Soul-mate: You are very fortunate to find your soul-mate but other doesn’t have. Treasure every moment with your life-partner, one of you will leave first! Life is short but more beautiful because of them.

Friend: You are great when your friend circles are good; you need to seize every opportunity to meet up with your friends, such opportunity will become real as time goes by.

Happy: Thing you must do everyday: smile and laugh. Time never come back in life while memories stay; stay always happy.

The ultimate end of life is happiness and salvation in my thought.

-kharingyo shimrah

USA DOMINANCE THEORY FAIL:

US foreign policy is based on dominance theory; they are playing very immature politics for her benefit and turning the human society into danger place. Why US sells weapon to the developing countries and trying to control all her allies, which make no sense at all, philosophically speaking. US should realized that their dominance theory has fail the Human Society.

Two examples:

  1. Phone tapping and cyber war.
  2. Wagging war in foreign countries.

The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 2014.

SOUTH DAKOTA 1890:
Troops 300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.

ARGENTINA 1890:
Troops Buenos Aires interests protected.

CHILE 1891:
Troops Marines clash with nationalist rebels.

HAITI 1891:
Troops Black revolt on Navassa defeated.

IDAHO 1892:
Troops Army suppresses silver miners’ strike.

HAWAII 1893:
Naval, troops Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.

CHICAGO 1894:
Troops Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.

NICARAGUA 1894:
Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA 1894-95:
Naval, troops Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.

KOREA 1894-96:
Troops Marines kept in Seoul during war.

PANAMA 1895:
Troops, naval Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA 1896:
Troops Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA 1898-1900:
Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.

PHILIPPINES 1898-1910:
Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos.

CUBA 1898-1902:
Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.

PUERTO RICO 1898 (-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues.

GUAM 1898:
Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA 1898:
Troops Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA 1898:
Troops Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.

SAMOA 1899-:
Troops Battle over succession to throne.

NICARAGUA 1899:
Troops Marines land at port of Bluefields.

IDAHO 1899-1901:
Troops Army occupies Coeur d’Alene mining region.

OKLAHOMA 1901:
Troops Army battles Creek Indian revolt.

PANAMA 1901-14:
Naval, troops Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone; Opened canal 1914.

HONDURAS 1903:
Troops Marines intervene in revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1903-04: Troops U.S. interests protected in Revolution.

KOREA 1904-05:
Troops Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.

CUBA 1906-09:
Troops Marines land in democratic election.

NICARAGUA 1907:
Troops “Dollar Diplomacy” protectorate set up.

HONDURAS 1907:
Troops Marines land during war with Nicaragua.

PANAMA 1908:
Troops Marines intervene in election contest.

NICARAGUA 1910:
Troops Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.

HONDURAS 1911:
Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.

CHINA 1911-41:
Naval, troops Continuous occupation with flare-ups.

CUBA 1912:
Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war.

PANAMA 1912:
Troops Marines land during heated election.

HONDURAS 1912:
Troops Marines protect U.S. economic interests.

NICARAGUA 1912-33:
Troops, bombing 10-year occupation, fought guerillas.

MEXICO 1913:
Naval Americans evacuated during revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1914:
Naval Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.

COLORADO 1914:
Troops Breaking of miners’ strike by Army.

MEXICO 1914-18:
Naval, troops Series of interventions against nationalists.

HAITI 1914-34:
Troops, bombing 19-year occupation after revolts.

TEXAS 1915:
Troops Federal soldiers crush “Plan of San Diego” Mexican-American rebellion.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1916-24: Troops 8-year Marine occupation.

CUBA 1917-33:
Troops Military occupation, economic protectorate.

WORLD WAR I 1917-18:
Naval, troops Ships sunk, fought Germany for 1 1/2 years.

RUSSIA 1918-22:
Naval, troops. Five landings to fight Bolsheviks.

PANAMA 1918-20:
Troops “Police duty” during unrest after elections.

HONDURAS 1919:
Troops Marines land during election campaign.

YUGOSLAVIA 1919:
Troops/Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.

GUATEMALA 1920:
Troops 2-week intervention against unionists.

WEST VIRGINIA 1920-21:
Troops, bombing Army intervenes against mineworkers.

TURKEY 1922:
Troops Fought nationalists in Smyrna.

CHINA 1922-27:
Naval, troops Deployment during nationalist revolt.

MEXICO 1923:
Bombing, Airpower defends Calles from rebellion.

HONDURAS 1924-25:
Landed twice during election strife.

PANAMA 1925:
Troops Marines suppress general strike.

CHINA 1927-34:
Troops Marines stationed throughout the country.

EL SALVADOR 1932:
Naval Warships send during Marti revolt.

WASHINGTON DC 1932:
Troops Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.

WORLD WAR II 1941-45:
Naval, troops, bombing, nuclear Hawaii bombed, fought Japan, Italy and Germany for 3 years; first nuclear war.

DETROIT 1943:
Troops Army put down Black rebellion.

IRAN 1946:
Nuclear threat Soviet troops told to leave north.

YUGOSLAVIA 1946:
Nuclear threat, naval Response to shoot-down of US plane.

URUGUAY 1947:
Nuclear threat Bombers deployed as show of strength.

GREECE 1947-49:
Command operation U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.

GERMANY 1948:
Nuclear Threat Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.

CHINA 1948-49:
Troops/Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.

PHILIPPINES 1948-54:
Command operation CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.

PUERTO RICO 1950:
Command operation Independence rebellion crushed in Ponce.

KOREA 1951-53:
Troops, naval, bombing , nuclear threats U.S./So. Korea fights China/No. Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, and against China in 1953. Still have bases.

IRAN 1953:
Command Operation CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.

VIETNAM 1954:
Nuclear threat French offered bombs to use against seige.

GUATEMALA 1954:
Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new govt nationalized U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.

EGYPT 1956:
Nuclear threat, troops Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners.

LEBANON l958:
Troops, naval Army & Marine occupation against rebels.

IRAQ 1958:
Nuclear threat Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.

CHINA l958:
Nuclear threat China told not to move on Taiwan isles.

PANAMA 1958:
Troops Flag protests erupt into confrontation.

VIETNAM l960-75:
Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in l968 and l969.

CUBA l961:
Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.

GERMANY l961:
Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.

LAOS 1962:
Command operation Military buildup during guerrilla war.

CUBA l962:
Nuclear threat, naval Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union.

IRAQ 1963:
Command operation CIA organizes coup that killed president, brings Ba’ath Party to power, and Saddam Hussein back from exile to be head of the secret service.

PANAMA l964:
Troops Panamanians shot for urging canal’s return.

INDONESIA l965:
Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1965-66: Troops, bombing Army & Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA l966-67:
Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.

DETROIT l967:
Troops Army battles African Americans, 43 killed.

UNITED STATES l968:
Troops After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

CAMBODIA l969-75:
Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.

OMAN l970:
Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.

LAOS l971-73:
Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; “carpet-bombs” countryside.

SOUTH DAKOTA:
l973 Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.

MIDEAST 1973:
Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.

CHILE 1973:
Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.

CAMBODIA l975:
Troops, bombing Gassing of captured ship Mayagüez, 28 troops die when copter shot down.

ANGOLA l976-92:
Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.

IRAN l980:
Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.

LIBYA l981:
Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.

EL SALVADOR l981-92:
Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.

NICARAGUA l981-90:
Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.

LEBANON l982-84:
Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions. 241 Marines killed when Shi’a rebel bombs barracks.

GRENADA l983-84:
Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.

HONDURAS l983-89:
Troops Maneuvers help build bases near borders.

IRAN l984:
Jets Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.

LIBYA l986:
Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple Qaddafi govt.

BOLIVIA 1986:
Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.

IRAN l987-88:
Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war, defending reflagged tankers and shooting down civilian jet.

LIBYA 1989:
Naval jets. Two Libyan jets shot down.

VIRGIN ISLANDS 1989:
Troops St. Croix Black unrest after storm.

PHILIPPINES 1989:
Jets Air cover provided for government against coup.

PANAMA 1989-:
Troops, bombing Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.

LIBERIA 1990:
Troops Foreigners evacuated during civil war.

SAUDI ARABIA 1990-91:
Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.

IRAQ 1990-91:
Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.

KUWAIT 1991:
Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.

IRAQ 1991-2003:
Bombing, naval No-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south; constant air strikes and naval-enforced economic sanctions.

LOS ANGELES 1992:
Troops Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.

SOMALIA 1992-94:
Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.

YUGOSLAVIA 1992-94 Naval NATO blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.

BOSNIA 1993-:
Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.

HAITI 1994:
Troops, naval Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.

ZAIRE (CONGO) 1996-97:
Troops Troops at Rwandan Hutu refugee camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.

LIBERIA 1997:
Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

ALBANIA 1997:
Troops Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

SUDAN 1998:
Missiles Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be “terrorist” nerve gas plant.

AFGHANISTAN 1998:
Missiles Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.

IRAQ 1998:
Bombing, Missiles Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.

YUGOSLAVIA 1999:
Bombing, Missiles Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo. NATO occupation of Kosovo.

YEMEN 2000:
Naval USS Cole, docked in Aden, bombed.

MACEDONIA 2001:
Troops NATO forces deployed to move and disarm Albanian rebels.

UNITED STATES 2001:
Jets, naval Reaction to hijacker attacks on New York, DC.

AFGHANISTAN 2001-:
Troops, bombing, missiles Massive U.S. mobilization to overthrow Taliban, hunt Al Qaeda fighters, install Karzai regime, and battle Taliban insurgency. More than 30,000 U.S. troops and numerous private security contractors carry our occupation.

YEMEN 2002:
Missiles Predator drone missile attack on Al Qaeda, including a US citizen.

PHILIPPINES 2002-:
Troops, naval Training mission for Philippine military fighting Abu Sayyaf rebels evolves into combat missions in Sulu Archipelago, west of Mindanao.

COLOMBIA 2003-:
Troops US special forces sent to rebel zone to back up Colombian military protecting oil pipeline.

IRAQ 2003-11:
Troops, naval, bombing, missiles Saddam regime toppled in Baghdad. More than 250,000 U.S. personnel participate in invasion. US and UK forces occupy country and battle Sunni and Shi’ite insurgencies. More than 160,000 troops and numerous private contractors carry out occupation and build large permanent bases.

LIBERIA 2003:
Troops Brief involvement in peacekeeping force as rebels drove out leader.

HAITI 2004-05:
Troops, naval Marines & Army land after right-wing rebels oust elected President Aristide, who was advised to leave by Washington.

PAKISTAN 2005-:
Missiles, bombing, covert operation CIA missile and air strikes and Special Forces raids on alleged Al Qaeda and Taliban refuge villages kill multiple civilians. Drone attacks also on Pakistani Mehsud network.

SOMALIA 2006-:
Missiles, naval, troops, command operation Special Forces advise Ethiopian invasion that topples Islamist government; AC-130 strikes, Cruise missile attacks and helicopter raids against Islamist rebels; naval blockade against “pirates” and insurgents.

SYRIA 2008:
Troops Special Forces in helicopter raid 5 miles from Iraq kill 8 Syrian civilians.

YEMEN 2009-:
Missiles, command operation Cruise missile attack on Al Qaeda kills 49 civilians; Yemeni military assaults on rebels.

LIBYA 2011-:
Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation NATO coordinates air strikes and missile attacks against Qaddafi government during uprising by rebel army. Periodic Special Forces raids against Islamist insurgents.

IRAQ 2014-:
Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation. Air strikes and Special Forces intervene against Islamic State insurgents; training Iraqi and Kurdish troops.

SYRIA 2014-:
Bombing, missiles, troops, command operation. Air strikes and Special Forces intervene against Islamic State insurgents; training other Syrian insurgents.

 

South China sea-:

US is messing up in south China Sea and it will make China grow stronger which their dominance theory fail to proved .

 

How the insurgency is disturbing the administration of Manipur (Outer and inner Manipur)?

 

Introduction: The administrations in north-east state are exceptionally powerless and Indian security dangers from North-East insurgencies come rapidly. Insurgencies are the hindrance for each development in Manipur; one of the principle issues is, collecting illegal taxation from the vast majority of the administrators and officials and servicemen, businessmen including all shops. I want to concentrate more on governance issues, how the insurgencies play a role of stumbling block for state development and functioning of the administration in Manipur state (inner and outer Manipur). I have concentrated on how the insurgencies affect the administration of Manipur by utilizing sociological approach, economic approach, political approach and educational approach. It is widely accept by local resident genuinely that insurgencies are hindrance in state administration and subsequently I need to figure out why they are form? What they want? And how many insurrections are active and how they disturb the state governance system of Manipur (inner and outer Manipur).

Main content:   The majority of the residents in the Northeast especially Manipur state  feel that insurgencies are the real issue in the state development and governance challenges in many ways; collecting illegal taxes from the employers lead to corruption and their activities has no law which disturbed the administration of the state. The movements in outer Manipur; Naga based militancy (NSCN) are demanding “Nagalim” and they are as old as India freedom movement but most of other insurgencies are emerging recently for state political instability.   The ‘inner Manipur’ has 60% of population living in 10% of land, mostly belong to Meitei community and the ‘outer Manipur’ has 40% of population occupying 90% of geographical areas which belong to Nagas and other tribal.

How those militant linked various political leaders in Manipur?

I want to study how the militant linked to various politician and business men in Manipur and in Naga homeland located in northeast part of Indian state. Common people heard that political parties have link with various insurgencies in order to win an election and the politicians linked with them for safety from insurgencies attack.  Most of the insurgencies have linked with minister and politician but no one knows how far it is true.

I did some research in two areas; inner and outer Manipur, and I find that these are insurgencies active in Manipur are as under:

  • Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP)
  • Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL)
  • Manipur People’s Liberation (PREPAK)
  • People’s Liberation Army (PLA)
  • United National Liberation Front (UNLF)
  • CORDINATION Committee (CorCom) [six valley based group]
  • Manipur Naga Revolutionary Front (MNRF)
  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM)
  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K)
  • People’s United Liberation Front (PULF)
  • Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF)
  • Chin Kuki Revolutionary Front (CKRF)
  • Hmar People’s Convention (HPC)
  • Hmar People’s Front (HPF)
  • Indigenous People’s Revolutionary Alliance (IRPA)
  • Iripak Kanba Lup (IRL)
  • Islamic Revolutionary Front (IRF)
  • Kangleipak Kanba Kanglup (KKK)
  • Kangleipak Kanba Kanglup (KLO)
  • Kom Rem People’s Convention (KRPC)
  • Kuki Defense Force (KDF)
  • Kuki Independent Army (KIA)
  • Kuki international Force (KIF)
  • Kuki Liberation Front (KLF)
  • Kuki National Volunteers (KNV)
  • Kuki Revolutionary Front (KRF)
  • Kuki Security Force (KSF)
  • Manipur Liberation Tiger Army (MLTA)
  • North east Minority Front (NEMF)
  • People’s Republic Army (PRA)
  • Revolutionary Joint Committee (RJC)
  • United Islamic Liberation Army (UILA)
  • United Islamic Revolutionary Army (UIRA)
  • Zomi Revolutionary Volunteers (ZRV)
  • Kuki National Organization (KNO) [11 militant group]
  • Kangleipak Communist Party-Lamphel (KCP-Lamphel)
  • United revolutionary Front (URF) [5 militant factions]
  • United people Front (UPF) [8 MALITANT GROUPS]
  • United People’s Party Kanleipak (UPPK)
  • United liberation Front Army (ULFA)
  • Kangleipak Liberation Organization (KLO)
  • “National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) has a camp in Manipur but not active.
  • Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA)” has a camp in Manipur but not active at all.

The list of insurgencies active in Naga homeland in outer Manipur:

  • National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN)
  • NSCN (Isak Swu and Th. Muivah) IM
  • NSCN (Khaplang) K
  • NSCN (Khole Konyak) KK
  • NSCN (Unification) U
  • NSCN (Reformation) R
  • Federation Government of Nagaland (FGN)
  • Naga National Council (NNC)
  • NNC Accordist
  • NNC Non-Accordist

On the other hand, the United National Liberation Front of Western South East Asia (UNLFWSEA), a newly formed platform of four militant outfits of the North East region, is trying to unite all outfits of the North-east region into the platform to launch a united struggle against the Government of India and demand north-east sub-nation. This group is present in most part of the North-East including in Manipur.

I believed that insurgencies problem and their exercises of unlawful activities affect the governance system of the Manipur state, administratively talking.  What’s more, I am intrigued to concentrate how the insurgencies disturbed the functioning of the state in Manipur. And it is very essential to analyze in various approach how the insurgency affecting the administration of the state in Manipur. We can study the problem as under:

Economic problem: There are number of insurgencies active in the state who involve in various kind of illegal activities; such as, illegal taxation to government servicemen, kidnapping and demanding money, torturing businessmen, looting, stilling material goods, drug business, demanding 2% or 3% in every developmental project in the state, and they also collect taxes from all the shops, business, contract, service men and other NGOs. If the insurgency imposed illegal money to govt. employer then he/she will be more corrupted and when they collect taxes from shops then shopkeepers will raise the prices of goods. In return common citizen become the victim of their action. I thought lack of employment and development is one of the causes of increasing insurgencies.

Political problem: The Manipur has political division of “inner and outer” where the congress has been dominating the state since independence. The political scenario of the Manipur state is very complex and insecure for many citizens. The administrators are very hard to run the state according to the law of the land because there’s political interference from the minister to the bureaucrats and servicemen and on the other hand, the threats and demanding illegal taxes from insurgencies. Most of the time, insurgencies threaten to minister and other leaders to fulfill their need; if they fail then they risk their life.

Example:

  1. On January 2006, M Indrasen Sigh, BJP worker was shot dead by suspected Meitei insurgency for allegedly refusing to pay extortion money.
  2. All Manipur Students’ Union Leaders Mr. Sunil Agarwal was killed by suspected Kuki insurgent in 2006.
  3. The suspected NSCN Insurgencies kill IAS officer of Ukhrul District in outer Manipur on 2009.

Social problem: social condition of the states is improving slowly and there are many youngsters and NGOs working to improve the social condition of the people. But insurgencies are carrying out unlawful activities time to time; killing, kidnapping, sexual harassment to women, torture, and extortion and disturb the peaceful life of the common men in the state. When we think critically, all the insurgencies in our state are our brother and sister who were once good men in the society. I think, we can fix the problem. According to the annual report of the State police department (2014), a total of 2,911 cases under the Indian Penal Code were registered in Manipur during 2005 showing an increase of 380 from 2004. Of the total crime registered, 256 were related to murder, 251 attempts to murder and 295 were assault, 70 cases of kidnapping of women and 25 cases of rape.

Literature review: I read many journal and newspaper and used magazines.  I read many book including “Political Development in Manipur, 1919-1949” by S.M.A.W. CHISHTI. Publish in 2005. This book gives me some clearer understanding of political Development in Manipur and ideas of insurgencies origination, and helps me to analyze better on insurgency disturbing in the state administration of Manipur…..

Research method: I use interview method and questioner method in my research.

Secondary data: I read journal, newspaper, and magazine and read one books. And I collect secondary sources of data from the internet for the project.

Primary data: I have personal experience and visited most part of the inner and outer Manipur. And I took interview to some people for this project.

Interview method: I took interview to various kind people based on age groups as under:

  1. Age group: 18-29
  2. Age group: 30-40
  3. Age group: 41 and above.

Age groups 18-29 are young youth in the state that I pick some person for interview for my project are as under:

  1. i) Mr. Asha kapai (28) in shillong, MA Political Science student in North East Hill University (NEHU) who is from outer Manipur: He is a son of headmaster in Manipur. In my interview to him, he said that most of the government servants were imposed illegal taxes by the various insurgencies and if they don’t give they will shot them. He shared is experience with his father “I needed my daddy’s income certificate for my scholarship form submission. So I called him up one fine morning asking him to make a fake affidavit, where he said ‘Dear, I have told myself that I’m not going to do any such a thing as it is not right. I have a job which is more than enough to support you all, so why take the money of the people who need it? He added ‘this is where we as Christians fall, not being able to be truthful ‘. That made me to ponder much on his statem He realize that his father is a honest government serviceman, still then he should pay taxes to the insurgencies like all other corrupted servicemen for these very reasons –
    I have parents who are among the hundreds standing for the right thing,
    I have parents who are willing to correct me in all ways ,teaching me to become a better person,”
  2. ii) Miss. Jaya Matum (24) in Imphal, Master student who is from inner Manipur: She said to me, that there are number of insurgencies in Inmphal valley and all of them collect taxes to government servant and to all contactor for any developmental project. Example: the government is constructing a big project in Lok-tak lake but there are many disturbance from the insurgencies. The various group come and go for collecting and demanding taxes.
  3. ii) Age groups 30-40 are they major and mostly marriage people who are very much aware the condition of the state political scenario and insurgencies issues.
  4. Sir. S. Wisdom (36) in Ukhrul, who was a vice-principle and social activist: He said to me that insurgencies are sometime intervening in the education institution. Once he was kidnap by them for unnecessary reason and threatens him in various ways. Insurgencies always create a problem in the state sometime which leads strike and bandh and the school and college cannot function properly, and for this reasons all the teacher were not able to cover up the syllabus on time. Thereby most of the rich families sent out their son and daughter to other state for studies. He suggests me not to write something in against of insurgencies with a sort of joke.

The best example: On 2002 the headmaster of mission school was shot by unknown insurgencies in Imphal city. So the school was closed down for some year and many students affected their carrier.

iii) Pradip Singh (57) in Imphal, bureaucrat working in secretariat office Manipur: According to him, those people who want government jobs in Manipur used to pay illegal bribes to the government official which were demanded by them; if not, how qualified you are! he/she will not get job. And they (bureaucrats) try to clean up the mess but can’t stop it anymore because minister and politicians are behind it. He and along with some friends complains and challenge to the court but the court can’t do anything. On the other hand, various insurgencies, collecting illegal taxes from government service men and shops as well as demanding huge amount of money to the successful businessmen and ministers are true but after all, in return the common people are the sufferer. He suggest youngster to step up to change the society.

In conclusion, some people I interview claim that “the centre government has been ignoring to the North-East State for development.” However I’m not convince how far this claim is true but today my focus is on insurgencies disturbing in the state administration of Manipur, how and when they intervened in state administration. I collect some secondary data, interview some people and I come up with this project…..

 

References:

  1. Defence Minister bares heart on rights abuse, The Sangai Express, 8 April 2006, also available at http://www.e-pao.net/epArcDisplay.asp?src=080407
  2. Annual Report 2006-2007, Ministry of Home Affairs
  3. Amnesty International, AI Index: ASA 20/028/2006, 11 October 2006
  4. Rights panel hits out at Ibobi govt, The Telegraph, 28 June 2006

5. S.M.A.W. CHISHTI, (2005) ‘Political Development in Manipur, 1919-1949’