Introduction: The administrations in north-east state are exceptionally powerless and Indian security dangers from North-East insurgencies come rapidly. Insurgencies are the hindrance for each development in Manipur; one of the principle issues is, collecting illegal taxation from the vast majority of the administrators and officials and servicemen, businessmen including all shops. I want to concentrate more on governance issues, how the insurgencies play a role of stumbling block for state development and functioning of the administration in Manipur state (inner and outer Manipur). I have concentrated on how the insurgencies affect the administration of Manipur by utilizing sociological approach, economic approach, political approach and educational approach. It is widely accept by local resident genuinely that insurgencies are hindrance in state administration and subsequently I need to figure out why they are form? What they want? And how many insurrections are active and how they disturb the state governance system of Manipur (inner and outer Manipur).
Main content: The majority of the residents in the Northeast especially Manipur state feel that insurgencies are the real issue in the state development and governance challenges in many ways; collecting illegal taxes from the employers lead to corruption and their activities has no law which disturbed the administration of the state. The movements in outer Manipur; Naga based militancy (NSCN) are demanding “Nagalim” and they are as old as India freedom movement but most of other insurgencies are emerging recently for state political instability. The ‘inner Manipur’ has 60% of population living in 10% of land, mostly belong to Meitei community and the ‘outer Manipur’ has 40% of population occupying 90% of geographical areas which belong to Nagas and other tribal.
How those militant linked various political leaders in Manipur?
I want to study how the militant linked to various politician and business men in Manipur and in Naga homeland located in northeast part of Indian state. Common people heard that political parties have link with various insurgencies in order to win an election and the politicians linked with them for safety from insurgencies attack. Most of the insurgencies have linked with minister and politician but no one knows how far it is true.
I did some research in two areas; inner and outer Manipur, and I find that these are insurgencies active in Manipur are as under:
- Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP)
- Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL)
- Manipur People’s Liberation (PREPAK)
- People’s Liberation Army (PLA)
- United National Liberation Front (UNLF)
- CORDINATION Committee (CorCom) [six valley based group]
- Manipur Naga Revolutionary Front (MNRF)
- National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM)
- National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K)
- People’s United Liberation Front (PULF)
- Zeliangrong United Front (ZUF)
- Chin Kuki Revolutionary Front (CKRF)
- Hmar People’s Convention (HPC)
- Hmar People’s Front (HPF)
- Indigenous People’s Revolutionary Alliance (IRPA)
- Iripak Kanba Lup (IRL)
- Islamic Revolutionary Front (IRF)
- Kangleipak Kanba Kanglup (KKK)
- Kangleipak Kanba Kanglup (KLO)
- Kom Rem People’s Convention (KRPC)
- Kuki Defense Force (KDF)
- Kuki Independent Army (KIA)
- Kuki international Force (KIF)
- Kuki Liberation Front (KLF)
- Kuki National Volunteers (KNV)
- Kuki Revolutionary Front (KRF)
- Kuki Security Force (KSF)
- Manipur Liberation Tiger Army (MLTA)
- North east Minority Front (NEMF)
- People’s Republic Army (PRA)
- Revolutionary Joint Committee (RJC)
- United Islamic Liberation Army (UILA)
- United Islamic Revolutionary Army (UIRA)
- Zomi Revolutionary Volunteers (ZRV)
- Kuki National Organization (KNO) [11 militant group]
- Kangleipak Communist Party-Lamphel (KCP-Lamphel)
- United revolutionary Front (URF) [5 militant factions]
- United people Front (UPF) [8 MALITANT GROUPS]
- United People’s Party Kanleipak (UPPK)
- United liberation Front Army (ULFA)
- Kangleipak Liberation Organization (KLO)
- “National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) has a camp in Manipur but not active.
- Garo National Liberation Army (GNLA)” has a camp in Manipur but not active at all.
The list of insurgencies active in Naga homeland in outer Manipur:
- National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN)
- NSCN (Isak Swu and Th. Muivah) IM
- NSCN (Khaplang) K
- NSCN (Khole Konyak) KK
- NSCN (Unification) U
- NSCN (Reformation) R
- Federation Government of Nagaland (FGN)
- Naga National Council (NNC)
- NNC Accordist
- NNC Non-Accordist
On the other hand, the United National Liberation Front of Western South East Asia (UNLFWSEA), a newly formed platform of four militant outfits of the North East region, is trying to unite all outfits of the North-east region into the platform to launch a united struggle against the Government of India and demand north-east sub-nation. This group is present in most part of the North-East including in Manipur.
I believed that insurgencies problem and their exercises of unlawful activities affect the governance system of the Manipur state, administratively talking. What’s more, I am intrigued to concentrate how the insurgencies disturbed the functioning of the state in Manipur. And it is very essential to analyze in various approach how the insurgency affecting the administration of the state in Manipur. We can study the problem as under:
Economic problem: There are number of insurgencies active in the state who involve in various kind of illegal activities; such as, illegal taxation to government servicemen, kidnapping and demanding money, torturing businessmen, looting, stilling material goods, drug business, demanding 2% or 3% in every developmental project in the state, and they also collect taxes from all the shops, business, contract, service men and other NGOs. If the insurgency imposed illegal money to govt. employer then he/she will be more corrupted and when they collect taxes from shops then shopkeepers will raise the prices of goods. In return common citizen become the victim of their action. I thought lack of employment and development is one of the causes of increasing insurgencies.
Political problem: The Manipur has political division of “inner and outer” where the congress has been dominating the state since independence. The political scenario of the Manipur state is very complex and insecure for many citizens. The administrators are very hard to run the state according to the law of the land because there’s political interference from the minister to the bureaucrats and servicemen and on the other hand, the threats and demanding illegal taxes from insurgencies. Most of the time, insurgencies threaten to minister and other leaders to fulfill their need; if they fail then they risk their life.
- On January 2006, M Indrasen Sigh, BJP worker was shot dead by suspected Meitei insurgency for allegedly refusing to pay extortion money.
- All Manipur Students’ Union Leaders Mr. Sunil Agarwal was killed by suspected Kuki insurgent in 2006.
- The suspected NSCN Insurgencies kill IAS officer of Ukhrul District in outer Manipur on 2009.
Social problem: social condition of the states is improving slowly and there are many youngsters and NGOs working to improve the social condition of the people. But insurgencies are carrying out unlawful activities time to time; killing, kidnapping, sexual harassment to women, torture, and extortion and disturb the peaceful life of the common men in the state. When we think critically, all the insurgencies in our state are our brother and sister who were once good men in the society. I think, we can fix the problem. According to the annual report of the State police department (2014), a total of 2,911 cases under the Indian Penal Code were registered in Manipur during 2005 showing an increase of 380 from 2004. Of the total crime registered, 256 were related to murder, 251 attempts to murder and 295 were assault, 70 cases of kidnapping of women and 25 cases of rape.
Literature review: I read many journal and newspaper and used magazines. I read many book including “Political Development in Manipur, 1919-1949” by S.M.A.W. CHISHTI. Publish in 2005. This book gives me some clearer understanding of political Development in Manipur and ideas of insurgencies origination, and helps me to analyze better on insurgency disturbing in the state administration of Manipur…..
Research method: I use interview method and questioner method in my research.
Secondary data: I read journal, newspaper, and magazine and read one books. And I collect secondary sources of data from the internet for the project.
Primary data: I have personal experience and visited most part of the inner and outer Manipur. And I took interview to some people for this project.
Interview method: I took interview to various kind people based on age groups as under:
- Age group: 18-29
- Age group: 30-40
- Age group: 41 and above.
Age groups 18-29 are young youth in the state that I pick some person for interview for my project are as under:
- i) Mr. Asha kapai (28) in shillong, MA Political Science student in North East Hill University (NEHU) who is from outer Manipur: He is a son of headmaster in Manipur. In my interview to him, he said that most of the government servants were imposed illegal taxes by the various insurgencies and if they don’t give they will shot them. He shared is experience with his father “I needed my daddy’s income certificate for my scholarship form submission. So I called him up one fine morning asking him to make a fake affidavit, where he said ‘Dear, I have told myself that I’m not going to do any such a thing as it is not right. I have a job which is more than enough to support you all, so why take the money of the people who need it? He added ‘this is where we as Christians fall, not being able to be truthful ‘. That made me to ponder much on his statem He realize that his father is a honest government serviceman, still then he should pay taxes to the insurgencies like all other corrupted servicemen for these very reasons –
I have parents who are among the hundreds standing for the right thing,
I have parents who are willing to correct me in all ways ,teaching me to become a better person,”
- ii) Miss. Jaya Matum (24) in Imphal, Master student who is from inner Manipur: She said to me, that there are number of insurgencies in Inmphal valley and all of them collect taxes to government servant and to all contactor for any developmental project. Example: the government is constructing a big project in Lok-tak lake but there are many disturbance from the insurgencies. The various group come and go for collecting and demanding taxes.
- ii) Age groups 30-40 are they major and mostly marriage people who are very much aware the condition of the state political scenario and insurgencies issues.
- Sir. S. Wisdom (36) in Ukhrul, who was a vice-principle and social activist: He said to me that insurgencies are sometime intervening in the education institution. Once he was kidnap by them for unnecessary reason and threatens him in various ways. Insurgencies always create a problem in the state sometime which leads strike and bandh and the school and college cannot function properly, and for this reasons all the teacher were not able to cover up the syllabus on time. Thereby most of the rich families sent out their son and daughter to other state for studies. He suggests me not to write something in against of insurgencies with a sort of joke.
The best example: On 2002 the headmaster of mission school was shot by unknown insurgencies in Imphal city. So the school was closed down for some year and many students affected their carrier.
iii) Pradip Singh (57) in Imphal, bureaucrat working in secretariat office Manipur: According to him, those people who want government jobs in Manipur used to pay illegal bribes to the government official which were demanded by them; if not, how qualified you are! he/she will not get job. And they (bureaucrats) try to clean up the mess but can’t stop it anymore because minister and politicians are behind it. He and along with some friends complains and challenge to the court but the court can’t do anything. On the other hand, various insurgencies, collecting illegal taxes from government service men and shops as well as demanding huge amount of money to the successful businessmen and ministers are true but after all, in return the common people are the sufferer. He suggest youngster to step up to change the society.
In conclusion, some people I interview claim that “the centre government has been ignoring to the North-East State for development.” However I’m not convince how far this claim is true but today my focus is on insurgencies disturbing in the state administration of Manipur, how and when they intervened in state administration. I collect some secondary data, interview some people and I come up with this project…..
- Defence Minister bares heart on rights abuse, The Sangai Express, 8 April 2006, also available at http://www.e-pao.net/epArcDisplay.asp?src=080407
- Annual Report 2006-2007, Ministry of Home Affairs
- Amnesty International, AI Index: ASA 20/028/2006, 11 October 2006
- Rights panel hits out at Ibobi govt, The Telegraph, 28 June 2006
5. S.M.A.W. CHISHTI, (2005) ‘Political Development in Manipur, 1919-1949’