Brief History of Assam, From development perspective:
Assam is one of the medium-sized states of the country with an area of 78,500 sq km and a population of 2.66 crore. ‘Assam’ is the anglicized form of the word ‘Asom’ which means ‘uneven’ or ‘unparalleled’. According to another interpretation, the word ‘Assam’ is derived from the word ‘Ahom’, the Tai Mongoloid race who ruled most of the Brahmaputra valley for over 600 years till the coming of the British in 1826.
Historically, Assam has been a prosperous land. But today, Assam is one of the poorest and the most problem-ridden states of the country. Natural calamities, mainly floods, insurgency, terrorism, ethnic tension, economic backwardness and poverty, massive unemployment, serious financial crisis and many such problems have tormented the state for quite some time. At the time of Independence, Assam was one of the richer states and its per capita income was 4 per cent above the national average. Today, Assam ranks among one of the poorest states of the country and its per capita income is less than 60 per cent of the national average. What is even more disturbing is that the gap between Assam and rest of the country in terms of per capita income has been widening continuously during the last fifty years and if the present trend continues, then by 2020 the per capita income of Assam will be only about 40 per cent of the national average.
The earthquake was followed by severe floods in the mid-1950s bringing untold devastations and miseries in their trail. Next came India’s war with China in 1962. Assam and the North-East faced the brunt of the war. In 1971, Assam was fragmented once again and Balkanisation of the North-East was taken one step further. Assam had to shift its capital in 1974 from Shillong to Guwahati. Before the administration could settle down in its new environment in a make-shift temporary capital, the Assam agitation began in 1979 and the administration was stressed to its limits. Maintenance of law and order got precedence over everything else. The rise of the ULFA in the mid-1980s followed by unrest in Bodo areas engulfed the state with militancy, insurgency, terrorism, and associated killings, extortions. Although the state is very rich in natural resources and industrial raw materials, the process of industrialization of the state came to a grinding halt. Not only did the flow of fresh investment stop, there began a process of capital flight from the state.
Apart from the direct cost of fighting terrorism including loss of life and property, the indirect cost in terms of loss of production, employment, investment and a general environment of insecurity and despondency, have been immense. Assam’s case of economic degeneration cannot be explained in its entirety by economic logic and theory. It must be seen in its proper historical, cultural, political and geographical perspectives.
Source: Annual plan 2013-14, government of Assam.
Strategies for Assam development:
- From a per capita income above the national average in 1951, it is now barely 60 per cent of it. Assam’s economy has to accelerate and catch up with the rest of the country. A minimum growth rate of 6 per cent per year can be realized over the next five years which will reduce rural poverty from 40 per cent to 28 per cent in five years.
- After five years of 6 per cent growth rate Assam’s economy has to grow by 2 percentage points faster than the Indian economy. The state is focussing more on the industries and infrastructure in order to become a market for north-eastern states.
- Overcome transport and access to the north-eastern states. Assam’s transport infrastructure has improved but it is still inadequate. More needs to be done.
- Maintenance of the existing road need to be maintained. Connections and road access for the even the remote villages
- Congestion on the Siliguri-Guwahati sections of the railway should be relieved either by double tracking or providing adequate bypass siding.
- Army and the railways testing and certification facilities should be set up in Guwahati,
- Bridges across Brahmaputra are extremely important for connectivity and there are only three bridges today.
- Air connectivity is vital for a modern economy. To develop tourism, it is a must. Fuel price and tax concession are offered to encourage internal air services within the North-East should be continued.
- Convenient same day return flights to Kolkata are needed.
- The inland water transport network was disturbed by partition and further disrupted by the earthquake of 1950. Its revival needs a coordinated effort to provide infrastructure support and night facilities.
- Per capita electricity consumption in Assam is only one-fourth of the All India consumption reflecting the poor quality of life and low level of economic activity. If all the projects that were under implementation in March 1996 were to be completed, the NE would have a total installed generating capacity of 3396 MW, enough to meet its demand for some years. The work on these projects proceeded at a slow pace due to lack of funds. The gap between the average cost of supply and the average tariff is a phenomenal figure of Rs 4.50 per unit. Power sector reforms have become critical to improve the financial position of ASEB and should be steadfastly pursued.
- Apart from pressing for more funds for large hydel projects conceived years ago a fresh look at them should be taken for alternative designs taking into account their social and environmental consequences.
- A world-class telecomm service at low international prices offers an opportunity to Assam to develop and to overcome its traditional access disadvantage. Government policy must facilitate development of telecommunications in the North-East which has difficult terrain and many remote villages.
- Availability of credit is critical for development of small enterprises that in turn, is crucial for Assam’s development. The credit disbursed by banks and financial institutions needs to be stepped up.
- Unless extortion by various insurgent groups, which seems to have been the fastest growing activity, is brought under control, industrial growth is unlikely to accelerate despite many tax concessions and very attractive incentives given to industries to compensate them for the transport disadvantage as long as what the government gives other “tax collectors” collect.
- We need to understand better how militancy and insurgency can be contained. A separate study on militancy should be carried out.
- Trade with neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Myanmar and China can be made freer. The Ministry of External Affairs can do a lot for the North-East.
- Government has an important role to play in the development of Assam. It needs to provide social services, infrastructure and good governance. It will have to put its fiscal house in order. It is so starved of funds today that it cannot even find the 10 per cent needed to benefit from central projects. Downsizing government is a most pressing imperative if Assam is to develop faster. Fiscal strategies towards economic development are examined in a subsequent chapter where specific recommendations are given.
- It is critical to develop institutional mechanism particularly to provide accountability and to shake up non-performing governance systems.
- Decentralization and devolution of financial resources to local Panchayats should be done as soon as possible.
- A right to information should be given to the people through an Act, so that local bodies function in a transparent manner.
- The stage is set for Assam to take off. The implementation of the package announced by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee will give a big thrust to the region’s economy.
- A strategy of development led by many small entrepreneurs and initiatives all over the state is more likely to succeed, where young people and women clearly perceive that something is happening all around them and that the future holds out a lot of promise. Such decentralized development is less likely to be a victim of extortions.
- Assam’s development has to be based on its natural resources and on a participatory basis. The following sectors offer much scope for development
- Horticulture and Agro Processing
- Silviculture and Handicrafts
- Forestry and related industries
- Petrochemicals and related industries
- IT-based services
- Agricultural growth can be stepped up with a continued emphasis on shallow tube wells, formation of village development councils, development of rural roads and establishments of organized markets.
- It should be possible to increase fish production by 40000 tonnes a year in the next five years indicating a growth rate of 6 per cent per year.
- Assam and North-East have a vast potential for tourism and should be made a tourist hot-spot like Kerala has become.
- Revival of forestry and wood industries requires development of plans for sustainable use of forests. Innovative actions may be needed to implement them.
- Assam’s handicrafts need to be marketed to obtain high prices for them. This requires a modern design and marketing set up that targets high-income consumers in the world. A system to encourage private designers and entrepreneurs needs to be evolved.
- Assam’s unique Muga silk has not seen any technological development as hardly any research effort has gone into it. A silviculture research institute should be set up in Assam.
- Development is incomplete without social development. A chapter deals with poverty and social development and suggests specific measures.
- We should also note that development of Assam is intricately linked with the development of the whole North-East. With sound policies and good governance Assam should and can develop much faster than it has been doing.
Some of the above strategies have been achieved partially and still the Assam government have putting its rigorous effort to achieve the goal of development but unfortunately various obstacles have been stopping the state to do so. Some of the serious concern that hampers in development activities are discussed below:
- Immigration: Migration of the outsider into Assam has a long history. The British administration had encouraged migration of thousands of Adivasi from eastern India like Jharkhand, Orissa, and west Bengal mainly to work on the tea plantations and other construction works. Now recent news of Assam about illegal immigration problems from the neighboring country Bangladesh has created several turmoil in some districts of lower Assam. Such clashes even turn into barbarian bloodsheds leaving millions of people homeless. As a result, incumbent government has to suffer from socio-economic and political aspects.
- Unemployment: In Assam, unemployment is a big problem that put the future sizeable group of educated as well as uneducated youth of country in the dark. Service sector is poor in Assam. There has been very limited number of jobs and has failed to meet up the demand in the job market. The level of unemployment due to a lack of developmental activity over an extended period is reflected in the number of persons, which today has reached the 2.2 million mark. More than 70% of these are educated. It has been the one of the biggest problems facing in Assam and that imparting modern skill to youths can eradicate it to large extent, today. Almost 90% of the government revenue are invested in service sector in Assam.
- Insurgency: Assam has their strong insurgency groups including regional based on particular districts and tribes, actively deals with various corruption act including smuggling activities gun and drugs supply to other states of the country. Illegally trading logs from forests resources in the state. No doubt, sometime, they play the role of stumping block for development in the state, by demanding various sector development but mostly through violence and rarely though peaceful means. They collect illegal taxes to the major cooperate and private companies time to times.
- Example; 1. The governor’s report dated November 26, 1990, estimated the amount of extortion till by United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) at approximately Rs 4 to 5 billion.
- Example: 2. One Tea Company was found to haves paid 13.5 million to the Bodo Security Force.
- Example: 3. the insurgent outfit demand and extract smaller amount from various small businessmen and also corrupt government personal.
- Corruption: Corruption is one of the major issues in the state like all other states of India. The lack of integrity and honesty, especially susceptibility to bribery use as a position of trust for dishonest gain among the government servants, lead to blocking the way to development in the state. In all of nine years (2000-2009), only 95 cases of corruption were registered in Assam, with a conviction rate of 54 percent and zero recovery. After 2009 till 2013 the corruption rate is very high, 31 pending corruption investigations and 17 cases were added but there is no positive action against the corruption so far from the state side. However many young people coming up with new thought and positive step to fight against corruption.
Assam economic trends constitute the following major sectors given below:
Natural resources, agriculture, tourism, infrastructure and industries. All these together act as the backbone the state. Here I would like explore some depth in to the agriculture and industry sector that draws the major attention of the state.
Source: Annual plan 2011-12, government of Assam.
Comparatively Assam’s agriculture is strong and is exported to other states of the country. Needless to say about Tea of Assam which is famous worldwide, contribute around 13% production alone to the global market. Assam is famous for producing tea leave in India and the world. It is the most important cash crop in Assam, the total areas cultivation tea was estimated at over 229,000 hectares in 1989, employing an average of over half-a-million people per day. The ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ sector is likely to show a growth of 5.4 per cent in its GDP during 2010-11, as against the previous year’s growth rate of 0.4 per cent. According to the information furnished by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), which has been used in compiling the estimate of GDP from agriculture in 2010-11, production of food grains and oilseeds is expected to grow by 6.5 per cent and 11.9 per cent respectively, as compared to the previous agriculture year. The production of cotton and sugarcane is also expected to rise by 41.2 per cent and 15.2 per cent respectively in 2010-11. Among the horticultural crops, production of fruits and vegetables is expected to increase by 4.1 per cent and 3.8 per cent respectively during the year 2010-11.
Agriculture plays a vital role in the economy of Assam contributing 35% to the State Domestic Product in 1996-97 at constant (1980-81) price. The Government has, therefore, assigned very high priority to agriculture. This was reflected through a quantum jump in rice production to 39 lakh MT in 1999-2000 from the level of 31.55 lakh MT and 33.83 lakh MT in 1998-99 and 1997-98, respectively. This was achieved through creation of assured Shallow Tube Well irrigation with assistance of World Bank (ARIASP) and NABARD (SKY) scheme. Although regular flood, drought, heavy population pressure on land and infrastructural weakness are impediments to growth, yet the farmers have started to increase production through technological innovations and appropriate Government policies. During the next quarter century, the Tempo of raising productivity and production must be accelerated along with integration of our economy with outside economies necessitated in the aftermath of liberalization.
In the premises of the above background a VISION PLAN through 2025 A.D. has been proposed keeping food security, employment generation and sustainability of agricultural production in its core. Thus a vision statement for Assam’s Agriculture is crafted in the following words “SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE FOR ENOUGH FOOD, EMPLOYMENT AND WEALTH”, in order to achieve the above vision, areas of intervention that are to be addressed are discussed below:
Source: Annual plan 2013-14, government of Assam.
Source: Annual Plan 2011-12, government of Assam
Agricultural development in the state confronts a number of constraints, which are illustrated below.
Low availability of farm power: The current power availability to the farmers in the state is barely 0.3 H.P. per ha as against 1 H.P in the neighbor-hood. Low availability of farm power has become one of the constraints to double or multiple cropping. This has been acutely felt after expansion of area under irrigation through large-scale installation of shallow tube-wells.
Inadequate availability of seeds and planting materials: The NE states are not self-sufficient in production of required seeds except for paddy, mustard. Hence, the region is almost dependent on outside supply to meet its requirement of seeds. The infrastructural inadequacy and humid sub-tropical climate of the state make the process of seed production a complex procedure. Horticulture development has suffered from inadequacy of quality planting materials. This is due to lack of trained personnel and standard mother plants.
Poor post-harvest technology and facility: After the expansion of micro-irrigation through installation of shallow tube wells, the area under summer rice has increased considerably. The state government has launched an ambitious program to increase the area of summer paddy up to 10.0 lakh ha. The harvesting period of summer rice coincides with high rainfall making the process of drying and threshing difficult. The post-harvest handling of summer rice viz. threshing, drying and milling will continue to remain a problem till some innovative measures are introduced. The processing of pulses and non-traditional oilseeds like sunflower and groundnut is also a problem in the state. In horticulture sector, there is huge post-harvest loss due to lack of technology, product information and inadequate processing infrastructure.
Poor marketing infrastructure: Marketing has been a major problem. The price spread between the producer and consumer is too wide due to absence of organized market. The storage facility including the proper storage technology a problematic area. The cold chain system is virtually non-existent in the state. Absence of agro-processing industry make the farmers vulnerable to market volatility. Collection and dissemination of market information system is hardly adequate. Transportation of commodities from rural area is far from satisfactory due to poor rural connectivity.
Chronic flood: Approximately 3 lakh ha of crop area is subject to annual flood. High rainfall also makes the management of the crop difficult. These factors act as deterrent to the investment on farming.
AREAS OF INTERVENTION:
Sustainable agriculture is the key to keep up the level of production in the future. Issues related to this are discussed. Unemployment is another important area that is to be addressed in the agriculture sector. The industrial base of the State being narrow, agriculture sector must absorb the ever-growing labor force in the State. Self-sufficiency of food grains, oilseeds and horticultural products is the greatest necessity of the hour. However, excessive population increase has worsened the food situation. Although it is not discussed specifically in this report, serious efforts are necessary to mitigate the demographic problem. Introduction of large-scale shallow tube well irrigation in the State and future plans have reinforced the confidence of the State to wipe out deficit of rice from the next financial year. In this respect the strategy is to give stress on summer rice production with the irrigation potentiality created under shallow tube well programs. Introduction of hybrid seeds under summer rice will augment and stabilize rice production. Emphasis on cultivation of scented rice and other varieties suitable for snacks during Sali season holds great promise for exports. A target of production of 10 million tons of rice has been fixed in 2007-08 to synchronize with the celebration of 60 years of India’s independence. But the weakness of the State in this respect is the absence of a modern seed industry which is to be seriously thought of. Nutrient supply for targeted higher production of crops taking a judicious approach of Integrated Nutrient Management will be a challenging area of research in future. Use of green manure crops, bio-fertilizer and other organic manure to stabilize the agro-system shall be the focus of attention. The position of pulses production is far from satisfactory due to inherent lack of soil potentiality and absence of breakthrough in pulse research even in national level.
However, strategies have been given to decrease deficit in pulse requirement. In respect of oil seeds, although the State is deficit, there is scope to mop up the deficit and become surplus. Necessary approaches in this regard are also given. In case of horticulture, the State’s position is good. The main thrust here will be value addition inviting participation of the private sector. Floriculture is an entirely new field. The potentiality of floriculture can be tapped to augment export earnings and mitigate unemployment for which modern infrastructures are to be built. In order to achieve self-sufficiency, agricultural mechanization is the crying need of the hour. Issues related to mechanization are also discussed. Requirement of inputs and other resources are also presented in this report. Other related issues in respect of infrastructure, training, WTO regime and role of Information Technology in Assam’s vision in the next quarter century are also presented.
However, increasing population pressure on land will result in shrinkage of cultivated area. By 2025 AD estimated additional population will be about 178 lakh. This population will require about 2 lakh hectares for habitation alone. There will be huge requirement of food for this additional population. In order to meet this requirement, vertical increase of production will remain a pressing necessity during next 25 years.
The growth in GDP for mining and quarrying and manufacturing sectors during 2010-11 is expected to be 6.2 and 8.8 percent respectively over previous year. According to the latest estimates available on the index of Industrial Production (IIP), the Index of mining and manufacturing registered growth rates of 8.0 per cent and 10.0 per cent during April-November, 2010. The estimated growth rate for construction sector is 8.0 per cent in 2010-11. The key indicators of construction sector, namely, cement production and steel consumption have registered growth rates of 4.4 per cent and 8.8 per cent respectively during April December, 2010.
New industry policy for Assam from: New policy would be in place for a period of five years and promote MSMEs. Supratim Dev Guwahati, February 22, 2014 Last updated at 22:28 IST. The Assam government on Saturday announced ‘The Industrial and Investment Policy of Assam, 2014’, a new industrial policy that would come into effect in the state from March 1. The move is seen as an effort to fine-tune the Congress-ruled state government’s policy to promote industry. The new policy would be in place for a period of five years and has identified promotion of micro, small and medium enterprise (MSME) sector as its “priority area”. The new policy has laid down “various incentives” for units set up by private sector, joint sector, co-operative, partnership, self-help groups, trust, NGOs, as well as units set up by state government.
Also incentives have been provided to service sector activities such as employment-oriented skill building and vocational training institute, hotels and resorts above two-star category and diagnostic facility.
The new policy also provides value-added tax (VAT) exemption for 15 years to industries set up on or after March 1, 2014. For the first and the second year, there would be 100 per cent VAT exemption, followed by 80 per cent in the third and fourth year and 50 per cent till 15th year. Additional VAT exemption proposed for units set up in designated industrial parks such as Food Park, Bamboo Park, Plastic Park, Tea Park, etc. Entry tax has also been exempted for all eligible units including state public sector units (PSUs) on procurement of plant and machinery from other states. The new industrial policy has also exempted luxury tax by 50 per cent in hotel industry.
However, figures from recent years show the government-sponsored incentives, by both Centre and the state, have failed miserably to attract sizeable amount of private sector investment in the state. State industry minister Pradyut Bordoloi, while announcing the new industrial policy on Saturday, admitted the previous state-sponsored industrial policy could not attract much investment from the private sector. In the last five years, he added, the state could attract about Rs 12,000 crore, out of which around Rs 9,800 crore was by the central government in the Assam Gas Cracker project. Though the private sector, especially the big-ticket investors, had often sited availability of land, power and a conducive environment as prerequisites for investments, rather than incentives, Bordoloi sounded ambiguous and unconvincing while replying to questions of media persons on how the state government planned to meet the demand for land and power for industry. “We are looking at how we can create new industrial hubs through public-private-partnership (PPP) model,” replied the minister to a query on unavailability of land even within the premises of current industrial estates, given that the thrust area of the new policy would be on MSME sector. “We have realized we can’t attract big-ticket investors because of unavailability of land. So the utmost priority would be on the MSME sector. Efforts are on to create a conducive environment for the MSME sector,” said Bordoloi. He added: “The broad objective of the policy is to encourage sustainable investment in the MSME sector on local resources, create employment especially in rural areas and build a vast pool of skilled personnel.”
Apart from the above sectors, the Assam’s development is also measured by other development indicators like GDP per capita, literacy, life expectancy at birth, years of schooling, gender-ratio etc. some of these are given below:
Position of the State in the National Human Development Report:
The National Human Development Report 2001 places Assam at the 14th place in terms of the Human Development Index value, among the 15 States compared and at the 26th place among the 32 States compared in terms of the Human Development Index. In the 27th place among the 32 States compared in terms of Human Poverty Index 29th out of the 32 States compared in terms of Gender Disparity Index Rank.
GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product): Assam
Source: NEDFi Databank.
Between 1980 and 1990, per capita income at 1980-81 prices grew by 20 per cent in Assam compared with 40 per cent for all India. Between 1980 and 1998 per capita income in Assam grew by 10 per cent compared with 39 per cent for all India. While the Indian economy grew at 6 per cent over 1981 to 2000, Assam State GDP grew only at 3.3 per cent. While the growth rate of the Indian economy accelerated in the 1990s over 1980s, Assam’s economy decelerated in the 1990s.
Per Capita Income:
The per capita NSDP of Assam at constant (2004-05) prices and current prices during the year 2009-10 calculated at `20279.00 and `27197.00 respectively against `19063.00 and `24195.00 respectively in the previous year. The percentage increase in per capita income during 2009-10 was 6.4 at constant (2004-05) prices and 12.41 per cent over the previous year.
Source: Annual plan 2013-14, government of Assam.
Maternal Mortality Rate Assam has a high maternal mortality rate and there has been an increase in the rate over time. It increased from 401 per thousand to 409 per thousand from 1997 to 1998. However, the all India average maternal mortality rate is also very high, 407 per thousand in 1998, although there was a decline from the 1997 rate of 408.
Child sex ratio:
Source: Planning and development department, government of Assam.
Assam’s sex ratio i.e. females per 1,000 males stands at 954, with almost all districts showing significant improvement over the last decade. While the State ranks higher than the all India average of 940 per 1,000 males, we have a long way to go if we are to achieve gender parity of States such as Chhattisgarh (992) or Tamil Nadu (995). What is of concern, however, is that the child sex ratio, i.e. the number of female children per 1,000 male children in the 0-6 year age group shows a significant decline from 975 in 1991 to 957 in 2011, with 10 of the 27 district recording a lower child sex ratio than the State average. This is an indication that a lesser number of girl children are being allowed to survive, develop and grow into healthy and productive citizens of our State.
Life expectancy at birth:
The expectation of life at birth in Assam during the period 1989-93 at 54.9 is lower than the all India rate of 59.4. A woman in Assam has higher life expectancy than her male counterpart within the State in both rural and urban areas, but in both cases she has lower life expectancy than her average Indian counterpart. The male female gap in life expectancy in rural Assam is 0.7 years and in Urban Assam, the difference is even higher, 1.1 years. The expectation of life at birth in Assam increased from 53.9 in 1987-91 to 55.7 in 1991-95 and 56 in 1992-96 but lagged behind the all India figures of 58.2 60.3 and 61 respectively. The rural expectancy of life at birth in Assam during the period 1992-96 was 56 against the corresponding all India life expectancy of 61 years. The urban expectancy of life at birth in Assam and India during same period were respectively 65 and 66. The female expectancy of life at birth in Assam during the period 1987- 91 at 54.5, though increased to 56.1 in the period 1991-95, remained below the all India female life expectancy rates of 58.6 and 60.9 respectively.
Source: Planning and development department, government of Assam.
Assam’s literacy rate for population above 7 years is 73.18% 10 (an increase of nearly 10% as compared to 2001); this, however, is lower than the national average of 74.04%. While male literacy rate at 78.81% is higher than the female literacy rate at 67.27%, a positive sign is that female literacy has increased at a faster pace as compared to male literacy. At 104.4% 11 Assam’s gross enrolment ratio (GER) at the primary level is at par with the national average; however, enrolment at the upper primary level is 96.8 %, which is proposed to be improved.
Year of schooling:
A large number of eligible children of school going age still remain out of school. The recent NFHS survey indicates that 72 per cent of the population in the 6-17 age group is attending school in Assam, which is same as the all India average. Median number of years of schooling completed among the male population age 6 and above is 4.4 compared to 8.1 for Kerala and 5.5 for all India. Female educational achievement in Assam is found to be better relative to the all India performance. The various gaps: rural-urban gap, gender gap (male/female) and poverty gap (poor/non-poor) is very much evident from the data on educational attainment. The problem of school dropouts in Assam relative to other Indian States has also been brought out sharply in the Economic Survey 2000-01. During 1998-99, the gross enrolment ratio for primary school (class I-V) children was 109.63 in Assam compared to 92.14 per cent in all India. But for the upper primary level (classes VI to VIII), the enrolment ratio was merely 61.12 compared to 57.58 per cent for all India. Although the primary level enrolment during 1998-99 in Assam is higher than most other States, the gross enrolment ratio is considerably lower at the upper primary level indicating a high percentage of dropouts. One important reason for high dropout rate is the non-availability of educational facilities above the primary level in villages. A large percentage of the villages are still without an upper primary school. This especially accounts for a large chunk of girls dropping out after primary level. The parents are reluctant to send the girls to other villages for schooling, for fear of their security.
About Karbi Anglong: largest district of Assam:
It is an autonomous district under the Sixth Schedule of Indian Constitution. The people of the district earn their livelihood chiefly by agriculture. The district is abundant with natural resource but unfortunately it was quite backward in the field of education. The investigator intended to study the development and expansion of primary education in the district. The explored information says that prior to Independence education was totally at zero level in Karbi Anglong. After Independence, some initiatives have been taken by both the state government and the District Council for providing education to the local tribal people. At present, a number of primaries, M.E., high and higher secondary schools were established in the district. Provision of higher education is also here. According to 2011 census, the literacy rate of Karbi Anglong is 73.52, which is low in comparison to other districts of Assam. Presently, Sarva Shiksha Abhijan (SSA) has been trying to cover all children of 6-14 years in the field of education which has been a great initiative for the development of elementary education. Because of its special package, district has witnessed overall some good development including sectors like road and transport, agriculture based on rubber, coffee, rice, maize etc. Public health also increased due to the notional rural health mission. With the implementation of the various flagship programs like MGNREGAs, Indira Awaas Yojona, district infrastructure has improved lot. Power sector also improved over the past 10 years, now almost every rural villages have electricity connection in their house, at least a single bulb. But some of the social-political problems have increased more. Ethnic clash is often seen perpetuated by a handful groups for their political interest. It also a hub of several regional militants that hinder in the development path.
About the Uklrul: District of Manipur:
Ukhrul is the home of the Tangkhul Naga tribe, According to the 2011 census Ukhrul district has a population of 183,115,The district headquarters, Ukhrul, is linked with Imphal, the state capital by national highway 1Development of the Ukhrul are taking places in many areas like education, health and agriculture. Most of the youngster from my district were getting education at least upto class X to XII much more better comparing to last 5 (five) year. The district headquarter hospital is promoted into better infrastructure and having more facilities recently. The agriculture were very much improve with the help of Foreign Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), the farmer increase their production by using machine in the farming given by the IFAD to the farmer of Ukhrul district.
‘Look East‘; one of the most interesting in the present Indian foreign policy regarding trading with Eastern neighboring nation is we called it ‘Look East policy’ thrust of Indian foreign policy has also grown as Europe and the US east-to-west. Government of India trying to operate a new policies to open a trade with eastern part of country and Ukhrul town will become a gateway to Burma once it is .
Ukhrul my home town: ukhrul is land of Shirui lily. Many development taking place in Ukhrul District Manipur state; like:
|The mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005
Ministry of Rural Development Government of India 2012 data.
- Assam Planning Commission, 2012.
- Annual plan 2011-12, 2012-13, 2013-14.
- Economic survey of Assam 2011-12, 2012-13.
- UNDP (Assam Economics and Human Development Indicators.
- Assam state human development Report, 2013-14.
- Government of Assam, Vision Assam 2025.
- Chief Minister’s vision for women and children 2016, government of Assam.
- Gait, Edward A (1906), “A History of Assam, Calcutta”.
- Imperial Gazetteer, Vol 6, 1908).
- The Assam Tourism Development Corporation Ltd (2012).
- India-Asia-IFAD, May 16 2012.
- Karbi Anglong.gov.in
- Rural Development Program- Ukhrul District Manipur.2011-12.
- Das, H.N.,”Insurgency and development the Assam experience”.